Margarines, hydrogenated oils and fats, refined vegetable oils, as well as animal fats are widely used fat ingredients for bakery products. The lipid fraction of bakery products undergoes a significant degradation during baking, with an increase in undesirable oxidised substances, that can act acts as catalysts for further oxidative reactions during storage reducing the product shelf life (Caponio, Giarnetti, Paradiso, Summo & Gomes, 2013, pg.82-88). Depending on the type used, fats play various roles in baked products. Their hydrophobic action inhibits gluten development; the extent of this inhibition is determined by the type, temperature, and amount of fat used, as well as by the method of incorporation (McWilliams, 2012, p.409). Functional roles of fats in baked products include color, flavor, texture, and tenderness.
Fat is a major ingredient in pasty and often is included in weights that are about half of the weight of the flour. However, the cutting in of the fat until it is moderately coarse particles results in its very inefficient use as a tenderizing ingredient. All of the fat on the interior of each piece is unavailable to interfere with gluten development. This explains why pastry often is fairly tough despite the large amount of fat it contains (McWilliams, 2012, p.271). Gluten provides dough with elasticity and the ability to stretch, as the leavening agent produces carbon dioxide, which enables the dough to rise effectively. The more protein in the flour (as in the case with hard flour), the more gluten is usually formed. (Perego, Sordi, Guastalli, & Converti, 2007, p.649-657). Fat gives pastries the flakiness that is highly desirable. Flakiness is a result of the gluten in the pastry has been denatured during the baking process where cells are locked into the extended position.
Substituting fats in baked products are ideal for a healthier choice or just necessity The increasing pressure to remove trans fatty acids from food products, indeed even to remove the term ‘hydrogenated’ from the food label; coupled with the drive to supply products with much lower saturated fat contents has become a global high-profile topic (Wassell & Young, 2007). Usually when substituting fats in baked products the finished product results in a different type of texture, color, flavor and tenderness. What should be taken into consideration when substituting fat is the amount being replaced, because it may or may not be equivalent. Even when substituted appropriately the outcome of the baked product will show various differences.
The sample pie pastries were prepared using the formulas in Table 1 and the product preparation procedures in Figure 1 (Burns, 2012). The samples were made using Great Value all-purpose flour, Morton’s Iodized Salt, Shoppers Value Shortening, County Market Vegetable Oil, Blue Bonnet margarine, County Fresh salted butter, Benecol plant stanol, and Crisco butter-flavored...