This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Conditioning Paradigm And Physiological Assessment Essay

3187 words - 13 pages

Materials & Methods

Participants. Twenty right-handed healthy participants (age 22.39±3.82, ten females), were recruited for this 2-day experiment. All participants were recruited from within the student population in the Stockholm area and were of Swedish ethnicity (Caucasian). All participants gave their written informed consent before participation and were naive to the purpose of the experiment. The procedures were executed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines, and were approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board of Stockholm. Participants were paid for their participations.
Conditioning paradigm and physiological assessment. The experiment took part over 2 days, Day 1 involved the fear-conditioning paradigm in functional MRI (fMRI) setting, and Day 2 involved a recall session followed by questionnaires, Cyberball and IAT outside of the scanner.
Day 1: On Day 1, participants were submitted to a delayed conditioning fear conditioning protocol that was directly modelled on previous studies (Olsson, Ebert, Banaji, & Phelps, 2005). Participants were told that they would see visual images on a screen while sometimes receiving shocks. The instructions were to pay attention to the screen, throughout the whole experiment. No distinction was made between the Acquisition and Extinction phase to the participant. Conditioned stimuli were composed of images (selected from a face database provided by Jennifer Eberhardt of Stanford University) of two White and two Black American neutral male faces that appeared on a computer screen. Before the procedure, skin conductance electrodes were attached to the second and fourth distal phalanges of the left hand, and the shock electrode was attached to the right wrist. Each stimulus served as both CS+ and CS- counterbalanced across subjects. All stimuli were presented for 6 seconds with a mean interstimulus interval (ITI) of 12s. During the initial habituation phase, subjects saw 4 non-reinforced presentations of each CS. During the subsequent acquisition phase, they saw each CS 9 times, with every presentation of a CS+ co-terminating with a 200-ms shock, and the presentation of a CS- never paired with a shock. Finally, the extinction phase included 12 non-reinforced presentations of each CS. The order of presentation within each phase was randomized. Subjects had an electrode attached to their wrist that they were told would be used to deliver mild electric shocks, cable leads were magnetically shielded and grounded through an RF filter. The subjects were asked to adjust the level of the shocks themselves through a standard work-up procedure prior to the scanning session. The shock level was gradually increased until the participant experienced the shock to be “uncomfortable” but not “painful”. Skin conductance was measured with shielded Ag-AgCl electrodes filled with Conductive gel (Signa, Parker). The electrode cables were grounded through a RF filter panel, and the SCR was sampled...

Find Another Essay On Conditioning Paradigm and Physiological Assessment

Phobias and Addictions Paper

763 words - 3 pages RUNNING HEAD: PHOBIAS AND ADDICTIONS PAPER Page 6Phobias and Addictions PaperJulie JacobsPsy/300June 16, 2014Phobias and Addictions PaperAccording to, "Phobias are an abnormal intense and irrational fear of a given situation, organism, or object" (2014). Phobias can interferes with a person abilities to work and socialize because of extreme fear. "Addictions are Habitual psychological and physiological dependence on a substance or

Brave New World Essay

558 words - 2 pages Aldous Huxley's dangerous view on the future will happen if not this decade then the next. He uses Lenina and Linda to illustrate drug abuse which is happening in reality. Likewise, he uses Mond to illustrate how mind control will end up if it gets into the wrong hands. Our society is coming to a point where horrible things are in the process of happening like physiological conditioning and recreational drug abuse to escape reality, just like in

Articles on Identity and Intercultural Communication

632 words - 3 pages tendency to be curly rather than straight, etc. After discussing the often bothersome and even sometimes painful processes of ironing and other means to make black hair conform to thewhite paradigm, she describes how these processes contribute to the atmosphere of oppression by forming a part of that very social and psychological conditioning that help to perpetuate it.The effect of this conditioning is described by her as tending to encourage the

Is Psychology a Science?

1266 words - 5 pages human and non-human behaviour, then to cognitive processes within psychology's first eighty years as a separate discipline. Also, a theory construction is important. This represents an attempt to explain observed phenomena, such as Watson's attempt to account for human and non-human behaviour in terms of classical conditioning, and Skinner's subsequent attempt to do the same with operant conditioning. Any science must have hypotheses, and indeed


1799 words - 8 pages consensus of a scientific community (Kuhn, 1996). Strength and weakness of Kuhn theory of scientific development The evaluation and rational assessment of a paradigm has been a critical point in the general acceptance of Kuhn theory of scientific development. With comparing and measuring between existing, competing and successive paradigms, and the procedure for replacing existing paradigm by one of many competing paradigm as focus of major

Shamanistic Healing

2124 words - 8 pages . Physiological response, emotional perception, and intuitive perception are three documented levels of ecstasy. First the physiological response is when the mind becomes absorbed in and focused on a dominant idea and the nervous system is cut off from physical sensory input. The body exhibits reflex inertia, involuntary nervous responses, and frenzy. Emotional perception, another form of ecstasy, refers to overwhelming feelings of awe, anxiety

Description of Abnormal Psychology

1984 words - 8 pages imagery, trauma scripts or visitations to the place(s) where the event occurred, the therapist exercises counter conditioning, an example of a cognitive paradigm with elements of relaxation and exposure techniques. It also pertains to understanding the physical indicators of panic, the role of avoidance and the impact of beliefs and anxieties (4). Cognitive restructuring is also a way to relieve clients of their traumatic experiences and

Learning and Cognition

961 words - 4 pages . Since birth we all have been able to do things naturally and perform certain actions on our own, meaning we exhibit a great deal of behaviors. Though in the paradigm of learning, in the jurisdiction of psychology, is best described as, "Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral potentiality that results from experience and cannot be attributed to temporary body states such as those induced by illness, fatigue, or

Phobias and Addictions

1004 words - 4 pages with classical conditioning. An example of this can be arachnophobia, fearing spiders. Comparing this to Pavlov's dog experiment, the spider has no knowledge of fear through itself. For here, another stimulus must be present in order for classical conditioning to occur. In Pavlov's experiment, the dog's second stimulus was food was added to the sound of the bell, in order to make the dogs start drooling. The dogs would hear the bell, and start to

integration of learning

995 words - 4 pages response that involve in the ingestion of food. S’-R is also a reflex but of an investigatory type. Such investigatory reflexes ordinarily disappear through adaption. When S’ is presented alone after simultaneous pairing of S-R and S’-R’, R will occur without S (p. 2)”. Works Cited McLeod, S. A. (2008). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Clark, R. E. (2004). The Classical Origins of Pavlov's Conditioning. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294. Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (2000). Conditioned emotional reactions. American Psychologist, 55(3), 313-317. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.3.313

Instrumental Conditioning

1410 words - 6 pages Physiological Psychology, 90(3), 303-316. doi: 10.1037/h0088010 Sheldon, J. P. (2002). Operant conditioning concepts in introductory psychology textbooks and their companion web sites. Teaching Of Psychology, 29(4), 281- 285. doi:10.1207/S15328023TOP2904_04 Shnidman, S. R. (1970). Instrumental conditioning of orienting responses using positive reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(3), 491-494. doi: 10.1037/h0028858 Shteingart, H., Neiman

Similar Essays

Classical Or Operant Conditioning Essay

1187 words - 5 pages empirical evidence. The earlier part of the essay will focus on the development of the classical conditioning paradigm and cover the following topics: the findings of Ivan Pavlov and the conditional reflex and the components of classical conditioning. The latter part of the essay will cover: the fear response, how phobias and addictions can be attributed to conditional reflex paradigm. Additionally, will briefly describe therapeutic work in extinction

Classical Conditioning Essay

1167 words - 5 pages lightening, thunder and tornadoes and teenagers who had survived a ship sinking developed a fear of ships. Therefore phobic responses can be attributed to learned behaviours and can be generalised to related stimuli. There is further evidence for the classical conditioning paradigm in the acquisition of addictive behaviours. Babor (1996) discusses the stages of dependence that are linked to a syndrome model of which classical conditioning is in

Understanding The Paradigms Essay

1530 words - 7 pages deliver what the market demands. What follows is an attempt to capture the essence of the delivery and assessment issues in each paradigm, and remark on some of the policies where they are not recognised appropriately and this impacts our ability to capitalise on them. If you follow the paradigms through to their natural, and optimal, conclusion then the focus forced by current academic policies are inappropriate on a number of levels. The current

Cue And Contextual Fear Conditioning Essay

1576 words - 7 pages Fear conditioning is a commonly used behavioral paradigm to test an organism’s ability to create associations and learn to avoid aversive stimuli. There are two methodologies: cue and contextual fear conditioning (Kim & Jung, 2006). In cued fear conditioning, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) which activates a strong unconditioned fear responses (UR). After a continued training period, the