Port Resolution is located above a fresh water lens that is one of the current sources of potable water for the village. There are four bore holes located in the central grassed area of the village and water is pumped from the fresh water lens using three direct action hand pumps and one centrifugal pump. Three of the bore holes are connected to stainless steel direct action hand pumps. The pump model is a Nira AF 85, made in Finland. This model of direct action hand pump is commonly adopted in developing countries due to their Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) classification. A VLOM pump is an unofficial term used in developing countries to classify hand pumps that require minimal maintenance that can be completed by the village or community (WaterAid, 2013).
The bore holes were drilled by the Drilling Department of DMGWR of the Vanuatu Government and the direct action hand pumps were installed in 1993. It is assumed that the pumps were installed at the same time. One of the direct action hand pumps (Pump 1) can be seen in Figure 38.
FIGURE 38: Pump 1 is one of the direct action hand pumps in the village. (Author's photo, 2013).
One bore is connected to a centrifugal pump which pumps water up to the Port Resolution Yacht Club. The Yacht Club is approximately 450 metres west of the Port Resolution community. The Port Resolution Yacht Club provides visitor accommodation. Initially, the pump was solar powered; however, over time the solar panel broke and it is no longer operational; the pump is now powered by a fuel generator. Figure 39 shows the set up the pump connected to the bore hole. The pump is Australian made and it operates at 230/240 volts at a frequency of 50 Hz.
As Port Resolution currently relies on four bore holes to provide clean drinking water to the community from the freshwater lens; further reliance on the existing bore holes is undesirable for the design of the potable water supply system. It was considered be preferable to investigate drilling a new bore hole and a proposed location was determined while on site. The proposed location can be viewed in Appendix B – Maps of Site and Surrounding Area.
FIGURE 39: The current fuel powered centrifugal pump used to pump water to the Port Resolution Yacht Club. (Author's photo, 2013).
4.1.2. Well Dipping
Well dipping was an important field test used to gain information about the properties of the underground freshwater aquifer. Well dipping of Pump 4 revealed depth of the bore hole and the depth of fresh water in the aquifer at this location. Using the simple technique of two lead weights attached to builder’s string, the measured depth of the bore hole was 12.47 m and the depth to the water surface was 10.44 m. This result indicates that the thickness of the freshwater lens at Pump 4 is at least 2.04 m. While the pump and pipe were removed from the bore hole, sketches and dimensions of the two components were recorded. These notes can be...