Febrile Illness: Livestock And Leptospirosis Essay

800 words - 4 pages

Leptospirosis is one of the main reasons of acute febrile illness and cause widespread zoonotic disease in the world, transmitted from reservoir hosts (typically rodents) to humans via water or contaminated soil. This disease is more prevalent in tropical and subtropical part of the world and has definitely influences public health. Their highly adverse effect has also been observed on the agricultural industry due to abortions, sterility, and death in livestock. Leptospires from the contaminated skin and water infect the exposed mucous membranes or damaged skin and leads to a potentially deadly infection, characterized by high fever, jaundice, renal failure, and pulmonary hemorrhage. ...view middle of the document...

Leptospires interactions with the host expressing ligands are known to play important role in leptospiral infections. Host ligands such as fibronectin, collagen, laminin, and elastin, interacts with the diverse extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as OMPs, endostatin-like protein, and the lipoprotein LipL32, expressed by these spirochetes. Apart from these proteins, other numerous leptospiral proteins (LigA/B, Lsa21, 36-kDa fibronectin-binding protein, Lsa24, Lp95, TlyC, OmpL37, Lp95, and LipL53) have also been shown to bind host ligands in vitro. Presence of this many proteins suggests that there is definitely a certain level of functional redundancy among Leptospiral OMPs. Whether the different stages of infection require a particular set of adhesins is still a debatable question and need out attention.
To date, only a few leptospiral OMPs have been well-recognized which includes porin, OmpL1, and two lipoproteins, LipL36 and LipL4. The most prominent band which came as results of profiling of Leptosprial proteins was of approximately 32 kDa, which was recognized as LipL32. LipL32 has the ability to be solubilized by extraction of the outer membrane using non-ionic detergents. It is a most noticeable OMP in the leptospiral protein profile and has a lipid modification at its N-terminal Cys residue. It is highly conserved among pathogenic species and expressed during mammalian infection by Leptospira by recognizing the host adhesive matrix molecules such as type IV collagen and plasma fibronectin (F30 (heparin-binding domain)and F45 (gelatin-binding protein)). Following infection, LipL32 activates the NF-κB and...

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