This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Fecal Microbial Bacteria Essay

1203 words - 5 pages

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; most healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) such as staph or MERSA are dropping except for one: Clostridium difficile infections or CDI which causes an estimated 14,000 diarrhea related deaths in America each year. Clostridium difficile is a gram positive, anaerobic bacteria that can produce exotoxins, form spores and is beginning to show increased resistance to antimicrobial treatment. Symptoms of CDI include watery diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea and abdominal tenderness (CDC 2011). The usual treatment for CDI is first to cease use of any antibiotics that first may have caused the CDI. If symptoms do not improve, then ...view middle of the document...

I hypothesize that since Clostridium difficile infections involve an invasion of bacteria that our own bacterial flora is unable to compete with, immediate family members (particularly those within the same household) may have the same susceptibility to CDI. An unrelated person may be the better choice as a fecal donor due the difference in bacterial flora. In order to begin, a group of potential FMT recipients with confirmed Clostridium difficile infection would have to be obtained, as well as a group of both unrelated and closely related potential donors. All potential donors would be carefully screened for transmissible health risks such as HIV, hepatitis, communicable disease, parasite infection, travel to areas with a high risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob or diarrheal illness, history of gastrointestinal disease and any recent antibiotic treatment that may affect natural bacterial populations in the intestine (Bakken et al. 2011).
The FMT recipients would then be randomly assigned to a donor and divided into two groups based on relation to that donor: unrelated and immediate family. Preparation of the FMT would involve diluting a fresh stool sample with either sterile saline (0.9%) or milk, homogenizing with a blender and screening the mixture to remove any particulate and transplanting immediately. According to Bakken et al, the amount of the mixture administered via nasoduodenal tube should be smaller (25-50ml) in volume vs. a larger (250–500 mL) amount if administered via enema or colonoscopy (2011). After FMT is administered, some useful parameters to measure would be any resolution of CDI symptoms, the occurrence of CDI relapse over time and cultures of fecal bacteria to test for diversity. Simply testing for the presence of Clostridium difficile is not recommended since the bacteria can be present even in healthy, symptom-free individuals (Cohen et al. 2010). This data further supports the theory that the root cause of CDI is not simply due to the presence of Clostridium difficile alone, but rather that the body’s own bacteria is unable to compete.
If individuals in the unrelated donor group have a higher cure rate and lower occurrence of CDI relapse then the related donor group, that data would support my hypothesis. Further research could also be done by surveying FMT donor health records, dietary and lifestyle habits to make better choices regarding how FMT donors are selected in the future. We are only just beginning to understand how important the population of bacteria in our bodies can be in relation to our health, I hope that my proposed experiment could provide data to deepen that understanding.

Works Cited

Johan S. Bakken, Thomas...

Find Another Essay On Fecal Microbial Bacteria

Water Treatment Essay

744 words - 3 pages used to treat water for municipal and individual supplies. It is because chlorination method is easy to conduct and cheapest compare to other method. In municipal supply systems, chlorine is used basically in three forms which are chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite solution and solid calcium hypochlorite (Cheremisinoff, 1995). Chlorine is very effective for removing almost all microbial pathogens and is appropriate as both a primary and secondary

Applications of Microbial Bioremediation Essay

1985 words - 8 pages this reduction reaction are Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus species and even the human fecal bacteria can sequester chromium (Srinath et al. 2002). 4.1.5 Removal of Mercury Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals known to mankind. It has been released into environment time and again due to various natural and/or anthropogenic activities (Kiyono and Hau 2006). Mercury has the ability to bind to the sulphydryl groups or

H. pylori and how cultural pracices affect the prevalence

1906 words - 8 pages Do you know that the bacterium behind ulcers was discovered by accident? In 1982, two Australian doctors Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were trying to culture the bacteria but it was extremely difficult. When they wanted to culture the bacteria, they only waited the usual two days for each experiment. One day they accidently left some Petri dishes in the lab and went on the Easter holiday. After five days when they came back, growth of colonies

Lactic Acid Bacteria

3359 words - 13 pages Many persons are oblivious to the fact that when they consume certain delicious food products like yogurt, buttermilk or cheese, they are actually eating live bacterial biomass which has acidified the milk content and contains a mixture of bacterial slime layers. Perhaps it is a blessing that most people are unaware because when most hear the word 'bacteria,' their first thought is of a microscopic unicellular organism that causes various types

Recycling Processes for Wastewater

1572 words - 6 pages removes constituents through a medium where only water particles can pass through. 2.3 Secondary treatment For secondary treatments, biological and chemical processes are used to remove the organic matter. Secondary treatment practices include activated sludge, aerated lagoons, anaerobic treatment, and sequential treatment. Activated sludge uses air and biological floc (bacteria and protozoa) in control to essentially remove organic matter

Living Machines, Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources

3517 words - 14 pages the process confronts the issue of extracting the particles and nutrients that have been dissolved into the wastewater. This process is biological and is called secondary treatment. The water flows into large tanks containing bacterial cultures that work to breakdown and absorb the nutrient load. The chemicals that the bacteria are especially good at breaking down are nitrogen containing ammonia compounds. Although the bacteria are good at

Rabbits

1543 words - 6 pages by the rabbit and redigested in a special part of the stomach. The pellets remain intact for up to six hours in the stomach; the bacteria within continue to digest the plant carbohydrates. This double-digestion process enables rabbits to use nutrients that they may have missed during the first passage through the gut, as well as the nutrients formed by the microbial activity and thus ensures that maximum nutrition is derived from the food they

A summary analysis of the article “Microarray detection of food-borne pathogens using specific probes prepared by comparative genomics.”

1823 words - 7 pages . Nature Biotechnology, 20, 275-281. doi:10.1038/nbt0302-275 Wang, R. F., Beggs, M. L., Robertson, L. H. & Cerniglia, C. E. (2002). Design and evaluation of oligonucleotide-microarray method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 213(2), 175-182. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11302.x

Legalizing the Selling of Unpasteurized Milk

1736 words - 7 pages industry in the last century. It used to be that people could go to their own or a neighbor’s back yard and get milk, but these days’ farms have thousands of cattle who are all milked several times a day. They are not fed the food they need, nor are they kept in the proper hygiene conditions. Conventionally raised cows, advocates argue, need their milk to be pasteurized because they eat feed and live on bacteria-prone industrial farms. Grass fed cows

Study of Giant Panda Digestion and Survival

2076 words - 8 pages The giant panda is part of the Ursidae family and in the order of Carnivora. Animals that are in the order of Carnivora usually eat meat but the giant panda specializes in the herbivorous diet of bamboo. The giant panda has retained the typical monogastric carnivore digestive system which is typically short and has no special compartments to retain food or any symbiotic bacteria needed to break down cellulose from the bamboo into any usable

Enterococcus faecium, Infections and Bio Film Formation

2180 words - 9 pages Enterococcus faecium, a major cause of nosocomial infections, is often isolated from conditions where biofilm is considered to be important in the establishment of infections. We investigated biofilm formation among E. faecium isolates from diverse sources and found that the occurrence and amount of biofilm formation was significantly greater in clinical isolates than fecal isolates from community volunteers. We also found that the presence of

Similar Essays

Anat 409: Summary Ii On The Microbiome Anatomy Assignment

895 words - 4 pages Summary II: Papers 6-10 The microbiome changes in microbial number and diversity from birth to death and increases in microbial number and diversity ranging from the stomach to the colon. The normal microbiota is associated with normal behaviour while dysbiosis, in stress and disease, is associated with abnormal behaviour. Through the brain-gut axis (BGA), there is bidirectional communication where the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA

The Functions Of The Gut Microbiota

2010 words - 8 pages production of bile salt hydrolases, which is systematized by bacteria like lactobacilli, complications with bile acid synthesis rise in the enterohepatic cycle of bile salt reabsorption, giving way to abnormal fecal bile salt loss and a decline of serum cholesterol levels (21). In terms of amino acid metabolism, which most likely results from unabsorbed dietary protein, fermentation encourages the creation of branched-chain amino acids, as well as a

African Dust And Microbial Pathogens Essay

2191 words - 9 pages The atmosphere is a relatively unexplored and unthought of environment for a microbial habitat. Approximately 0.5 to 5.0 billion tons of dust travels in the atmosphere each year throughout the globe or within a particular region (Perkins, 2001). Dust is transported from Africa, other countries with large deserts and contains diverse microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) often containing pathogens. Data presented within the current and

Biotechnology And Environmental Conservation Essay

1261 words - 6 pages society faces today. In the website of the Northern Arizona University, it is said that around 35% of the productivity in developing nations is lost due to these waterborne ailments. These diseases are commonly spread by the oral or fecal way in which water is the main avenue for the transport of these diseases. Bacteria are defined as any of the single-celled prokaryotic organisms. Bacteria are present all around us. The table below provides