This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Female Criminality Essay

1557 words - 7 pages

INTRODUCTION

A RISE IN STATISTIC OF FEMALE OFFENDING

The rise of female offending can be seen in various countries, but the reasons in the rising trends vary by continents. It was reported across various jurisdictions that, the rise of female offenders is particularly prominent in the U.S and Europe (Mclvor & Burman, 2011). Between the years of 1986 to 1995, women who are sentenced to imprisonment for drug offenses increased by 888%, this is particularly seen in states which uses severe penalties for drug offenses and among black women. Spain and Brazil were reported to have a high rising rate of female prisoner among other European countries; which were mostly incarcerated for ...view middle of the document...

The remaining report would examine other crucial factors to which why female offending has been on the rise for the past decade.
CURRENT INTERVENTIONS AND EFFECTIVENESS FOR WOMEN

WOMEN ONLY PROBATION CENTRE
The women only probation centre in London was designed to be gender specific; it addresses issues on decision making, education, employment and personal as well as relationship skills. The main aim of this is to help women be responsible for their lives and reduce offending. A follow up of over two years from the release of the program showed that the recidivism rate for those who completed was 30%, while those who received custodial sentences was 18% and those who received non-custodial sentences was 42% (Lart et al., 2008).

COGNITIVE SKILLS PROGRAMMES
The Enhanced Thinking Skills (ETS) and Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) programmes have also been introduced to female offenders in England and Wales to help female offenders with better thinking skills, control of impulsiveness and the ability to relate to others (Lart et al. 2880). A comparison of recidivism rates from 2 years after the release showed that, the R & R programme has a higher correlation with an increased risk of reconviction after one year.

DISCHARGE PLANNING AND AFTERCARE
This programme is being introduced in the United States, which involved discharge planning, peer support, health care and social work. The programme started in prison and continues in the community. This was targeted at female offenders who have a higher risk in acquiring HIV and reconviction through drug usages and prostitution (Lark et al. 2008). Despite the analysis of the effectiveness of this programme still needed to be further examined, it does provide some substantial factors that continuing therapeutic support may reduce recidivism rates for women.

LENGTH OF SENTENCING
The change in the length of sentencing has shown to affect the number of population in the prison. The implementation of minimum mandatory sentencing in the United States has demonstrated that. It was reported that the percentage of female offenders convicted for drug offences rose from 11% up to 32% between the year 1979 to 2002 (Mclvor & Burman, 2011: 12) and it was argued that sentencing law failed to look at the major and minor role the offender played. For instance, in a drug offence female offender who committed their first felony may face a mandatory sentence of several years more than they should. Similarly, the prison statistic for England and Wales showed that as of 2013, there are around 30% women prisoners serving jail sentences of more than four years (Berman & Dar, 2011: 6). As the number of female reception into prison have increased rapidly in Scotland, the average length of custodial sentences had also increased, where sentences can be over three months and up to four years or six months and up to two years, it varies according to the type of offences.
UNDERSTANDING FEMALE OFFENDERS
A better...

Find Another Essay On Female criminality

Crime and Delinquency Essay

796 words - 3 pages money, and exchanged money or drugs for sex. Concerning the syphilis epidemic's growth over recent years, the suggestion is that correctional facilities engage in a tough syphilis-screening program.A scarcity of data actually exists about the relationship between sexual orientation and criminality. There have been very few studies that directly address this question, and those studies that have been reported have presented somewhat contradictory

Criminal Behavior Essay

1963 words - 8 pages 2005).Crime statistics do not tell us why males commit more crimes than females. The uncertainty relating to crime statistics induced lots of theorists to make assumptions about female criminality and lots of theorists believed that females were indeed accountable for a much larger proportion of crimes (Carlen and Worrell 1992). In the 1950s sociologist Otto Pollak believed statistics on crime and gender to be incorrect, he argued that the

Psychoanalytical Theory

3100 words - 12 pages original psychoanalytical theory. Many of these recent versions are similar to the original version with the exception that they are updated to current times. Few new models are extremely different from Freud’s theory. Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2004) describe the psychoanalytical theory as follows: “In criminology, a theory of criminality that attributes delinquent and criminal behavior to a conscience that is

Investigating Crime and Relevant Issues

10646 words - 43 pages measured the facial features of prisoners in Italian jails and identified physical characteristics, that he believed indicated criminality. Individuals that had these features were considered to be a more primitive type of human being. Among the features which Lombroso identified were the following: an over-sized brain; squinting eyes; prominent eye-brows and a projecting jaw. Lombroso believed that these primitive

Application Paper 1

1723 words - 7 pages only British males, they could have opened up the research process to both males and females of any age, nationality, or culture. In doing so, they would have been able to discover the possible linkage between tattoos and crime at both the male and female level. Secondly the researchers state that “the measure of tattoos in the study was a dichotomous measure representing whether or not the British male had or did not have a tattoo and not the

Asses The Evidence And Arguments Which Suggest That Female Crime And Delinquency Are Under Represented In Official Statistics

1134 words - 5 pages crime and delinquency are no entirely accurate.In 1950 Otto Pollak argued that official statistics on gender and crime were highly misleading. According to Pollack, the statistic seriously underestimated the extent of female criminality. By examining official figures from a variety of different countries, he identified certain crimes that are usually committed by women but are particularly unlikely to be reported.He assumed that nearly all offences

Contrast The Lives And Fates Of Agnes, Rose And Na

1702 words - 7 pages Contrast the lives and fates of Agnes, Rose and Nancy in "Oliver Twist" In Oliver Twist, the three main female characters all meet different fates. Agnes, Rose and Nancy all lived different lives, but did this influence the outcome of their fates? This can only be answered by looking at their lives and by construing what Charles Dickens, and society thought of women at the time.Nancy is one of the female characters in the book that is the most

Crime is a contested and complex concept. Discuss

1048 words - 5 pages crime 2. Public willingness to report crime 3. Police crime recording practises 4. Policing policy/police resources 5. The criminal law 6. Chance and seasonal variation 7. Whether an offence is normally reported or discovered The relationship between perception and… - Age: Older = crime is increasing - Gender: Female > Men to say crime is increasing - Location: Syd > Outside of Syd to say crime is increasing - Occupation: blue collar → more likely

Nutrition and its effects on criminality

2151 words - 9 pages The criminal justice system in the United States focuses its efforts on issues such as over- crowding in prisons, police brutality, hot spots, and the like. Although these are all very important, the most important could be considered; where the issue of criminality could be coming from. The focus here is the link between nutrition and criminality. The importance of good nutrition will be reviewed as well as the criminality linked to poor

Are criminals born or made?

2101 words - 8 pages development, child-rearing that is not suitable or not administered in a nurturing environment can lead to criminality and deviance.Fourth, this discussion will argue that the social learning theory is of big importance when deciding whether criminals are born or made. Relevant empirical research by Bandura will be included to give evidence and strengthen the argument. It is concluded that criminal behaviour is learnt and environmental factors are of

Age and Crime

1392 words - 6 pages indicator of adult crime (Sourander, Brunstein Klomek, Kumpulainen, Puustjärvi, Elonheimo, Ristkari, Tamminen, Moilanen, Piha, and Ronning, 2011, p. 1212)? Sourander, et al., also state that “studies have found a strong and consistent relationship between bullying and involvement in violent behaviors” (2011, p. 1212). The results of a study of 5,351 children included frequent bullies (9% of the sample were male, and .9% female), those who’ve

Similar Essays

Criminology Essay

2308 words - 10 pages environments. Many critics have also pointed out that while socio-ecological theorists claim that crime is resultant from social disorganization, crime in itself is a form of social disorganization. Feminist criminology is another theory which attempts to analyse the causes of crime. Until recently, with the emergence of the modern feminist movement, the issue of female criminality has received scant attention among criminological researchers

"Walklate (1998: Vi) Suggests Feminism And Criminology May Be Contradictions In Terms. To What Extent Do You Agree With Her?

1708 words - 7 pages advanced that women's liberation was causing women to engage in more violent crime...Women have fought and won their battle for equality. They have 'come of age', and 'the phenomenon of female criminality is but one wave in this rising tide of female assertiveness' (Adler, 1975:1, source taken from Naffine, 1987:89). But do we take from this that there is feminine criminality or merely that women offenders are more assertive, more aggressive and

Criminality……Are Criminals Born, Or Made? Essay

3193 words - 13 pages Criminality has been sociologically defined as a form of deviant behavior from the norm and the acceptable rules of society. A more generic definition of criminality is a behavioral predisposition that disproportionately favors criminal activity. It is based on the premise that the act or acts committed by an individual violates the natural rights that are given to the person by birth and or by right. The statement "Are criminals born, or made

Outline And Evaluate What You Take To Be The Achievements Of Feminist Criminology

1922 words - 8 pages that would not be popular now.Psychological accounts of female criminality have also faced criticism from feminists. Freud is the most prominent example of this. Again Lombroso's legacy was present in his work, however he added to it. Whilst Lombroso thought that you were either born criminal or non-criminal (he later went on to change his mind), Freud included external factors. He attributed female criminality to the biologically inferior nature