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Females And Breast Cancer Essay

1255 words - 6 pages

Today, the most common cancer in females is Breast Cancer. Breast cancer is a form of cancer that affects the cells in the breast. It can occur in men and women but it mostly occurs in women. Breast cancer starts with the body’s cells multiplying strongly and then the cells metastasize to places in the body they shouldn’t be. It develops in the milk ducts and glands of the breast tissue, and begins by forming a lump in the breast. Once the lump is formed the cancer spreads through to the channels of the lymph nodes or the bloods stream to the other organs. Once the tissue grows, it invades the tissue around the breast. So far there is not known cause for breast cancer. The only thing known ...view middle of the document...

The genes function as transcriptional co regulators by interaction with certain transcription factors. (King and Welcsh pg 705-713). According to an article by Mary-Claire King and Piri Welcsh, “Chromosomal instability as a result of BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency may be the pathogenic basis for breast tumor formation (pg. 705-713). Lack of BRCA is a critical thing in the production of the illness and is the consequence of allele in breast or ovarian epithelial cells.
Women who inherited the genes are at great risk for breast and ovarian cancer. It is suggested that they get a prophylactic oophorectomy within one year of discovering the gene to reduce the risk of cancer developing. A study was done to approximate the defense offered against breast cancer by an oophorectomy in carriers of the BRCA1 and 2 genes. The purpose of this study was to determine risk reduction variation with age at diagnoses, oophorectomy, and the time since the surgery. They looked at 1439 women who carried the gene mutation in seven different countries in North America, Europe and Israel. They had the patients take a questionnaire about their cancer risks and family history. The questions were about oophorectomy, mastectomy, reproductive and menopausal history, smoking, oral contraceptive use, and hormone replacement use. They only looked at the patients who did the oophorectomy before the cancer came. The occurrence of oophorectomy was compared in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. They compared patients with and without a history of breast cancer using a matched case-control analysis with many number of controls. Results concluded that the average age of patients diagnosed with breast cancer was 38.9 years for BRCA1 carriers and was 40.9 years for BRCA2 carriers. It also showed oophorectomy-reduced patients who are a carriers BRCA1 chance of developing cancer by 57% and 46% risk for carriers of BRCA2. Earlier oophorectomy was related with a greater reduction in the risk of breast cancer diagnosed at age 40 or younger or between ages 41 and 50 than patients diagnosed after 50. The average time between the ovarian surgery and the diagnosis of breast cancer was 7.2 years for BRCA1 mutation carriers and was 10.5 years for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Overall, it was found that a good amount of protection against breast cancer for BRCA1 carriers but no much for BRCA2 carriers. The surgery not only prevents ovarian cancer but breast cancer too (Eisen Andrea, Lubinski Jan, Klijn Jan, Moller Pal, Lynch Henry, Offit Kenneth, Weber Barbara… Narod Steven).
Not only can breast cancer be prevented from coming back by a oophorectomy but also by pharmacologic interventions. For example, a study established that...

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