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International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences
7 (2013) 43-54 ISSN 2300-2697
Post-colonial State and Bureaucracy in Bangladesh: Theoretical Understanding
Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bureaucracy is the management apparatus of a state administration. Even in private sector,
bureaucratic organization is very much essential for its smooth functioning and betterment. A
legalized domination of bureaucracy only can ensure highest efficiency of an organization in a
country. But the state bureaucracy of Bangladesh not developed ...view middle of the document...
But in his Politics, Aristotle says that, "it is evident that the State is a creature of nature, and that man is by nature a political animal." (Stumpf: 1975). Aristotle viewed the state as the agency for enabling men to achieve their ultimate goals as human
being. Aristotle also sketched the different types of state nature; like Monarchy (one ruler),
Aristocracy (few rulers) and Polity (many). He observed three idiosyncratic classes in state;
Extreme Rich, Middle class and Extreme poor. His preference was middle class for governing
state to the holistic welfare.
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 7 (2013) 43-54
As an Enlightenment philosopher, Hobbs, Locke and Rousseau tried to observe state as
a new dimension. According to Hobbs state was uneven for the people in primary stage. He
argued that social contract to be needed for declining the inequality. According to Locke, the
uneven nature of state was the golden age of human society which becomes conflicting later.
For the resolution of such conflict, absence of common authority is essential, Locke argued.
For Rousseau, man is free by birth, but step by step they become chained by social
surrounding. In that situation, Rousseau expects the state interference to the freedom of
people. From the Marxist point of view, the state is a special organ that appears at a certain
moment in the historical evolution of mankind. It is born from the division of society into
classes and act as an instrument in the hands of the possessing class for the purpose of
maintaining the domination of this class over society. (Mandel: 2003).
This domination causes class conflict in a society. According to Karl Marx, state is the
means of economic conflict but noting. Levine stated that the rise of state involved the
separation of the public and private spheres and the development of specialized political
institutions. (Levine: 1924). Max Weber argued that sometimes political components control
over the economic elements in the state on the basis of authority. He characterized three ideal
types of legitimate authority by state nature; Rational Legitimacy, Traditional Legitimacy and
Charismatic Legitimacy. (Abraham & Morgan: 1994). According to Weber, modern state
based on legal authority which led to formation of governing body called bureaucracy.
Without bureaucracy state never run purposively, Weber argued. Our objective of the study is
to elucidate state nature according to bureaucratic characteristics on the basis of theoretical
understanding in post colonial period of Bangladesh. Weber‟s explanation of bureaucracy and its later discussion underpins the study for gaining our objectives.
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The Study of Weber's Bureaucracy
Historical context of Bureaucracy: Bureaucratic Theory was developed by a German
Sociologist and political economist Max Weber. According to him, bureaucracy is the most
efficient form of organization which has a well-defined line of...