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Fiche De Lecture "Le Cas Etrange Du Docteur Jeckyll Et M. Hyde" Robert Louis Stevenson

1582 words - 6 pages

LE CAS ETRANGE DU DOCTEUR JEKYLL ET M. HYDERobert Louis STEVENSONBibliographie de StevensonRobert Louis Balfour Stevenson est né à Edimbourg le 13 novembre 1850.Fils unique d'un ingénieur éminent, Stevenson entra à l'école d'ingénieurs d'Anstuthen, puis, après des études de droit, s'inscrivit au barreau en 1875. Il connaît durant sa jeunesse de graves ennuis de santé. Collaborateur du Cornhill Magazine, il délaissa peu à peu le droit au profit de la littérature.Atteint de tuberculose, il passa sa vie à voyager à la recherche d'un climat plus sain, notamment en France. Il publia ainsi Un voyage dans les terres (1878), suivi de Voyage avec un âne à travers les Cévennes (1878). C'est en France, à Fontainebleau, qu'il rencontra Mrs Fanny Osbourne, une américaine, qu'il devait épouser en 1880. Elle le conseilla dans la rédaction de son ouvrage d'épouvante Le cas étrange du Docteur Jekyll et de M. Hyde (1885).Le mystérieux imprègne également les contes des Nouvelles Mille et une nuits (1882). Et l'immense succès de L'Ile au trésor (Treasure Islands, 1883) est due à la poésie d'un réalisme fantastique, renouvelant le récit d'aventures. Toujours en lutte contre la maladie, Stevenson partit, en 1887, aux Marquises, Tahiti, Honolulu et s'installa enfin aux Samoas, écrivant Dans les mers du Sud (1896) et un ouvrage inachevé Le Barrage d'Hermisson (publié en 1896). Il meurt à Vailima, aux Samoas en 1894, terrassé par une crise d'apoplexie. Conformément à ces voeux, il est enterré sur le pic Vaea, d'où sa tombe domine le Pacifique. Mort brusquement alors qu'il abordait sans doute l'époque de sa pleine maturité d'écrivain, Stevenson est encore l'auteur des romans La Flèche noire (1888), Le Trafiquant d'épaves (1892, parfois traduit sous le titre Le Naufrageur) et Le Reflux (1894), d'excellents contes et nouvelles (Les Nouvelles Mille et Une Nuits, 1882-1885), de recueils poétiques (Jardin de poèmes pour les enfants, 1885), et d'essais.Genèse de la nouvelle1885, Stevenson a 35 ans. C'est un homme malade qui souffre et qui crache sans cesse du sang. Ses nuits sont peuplées de perpétuels cauchemars.Sa femme Fanny est son aînée de treize ans. Elle prend soin de lui. Dans la crainte d'une mort dont ils pressentent l'imminence, ils se marient en 1880. Fanny se révèle une excellente infirmière et ils partent vivre à Edimbourg.Une mauvaise situation financière les perturbe. Longmans, son éditeur lui commande alors un «Shilling Shocker » (oeuvre à sensation qui gagnerait les faveurs du public), et Stevenson, dans le besoin, accepte...

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