Figure Retoriche Essay

3523 words - 14 pages

Adynatonadynaton: avvalorare l'impossibilita' che si realizzi un evento ipotizzando per assurdo la realizzazione di un altro fatto che non potrà mai verificarsi. Es. 'è più facile che un cammello passi per la cruna di un ago che un ricco entri nel regno dei cieli. Un altro esempio di una simile tecnica espressiva è offerto da una lirica di Leopardi:Prima divelte, in mar precipitando spente nell'imo strideran le stelle, che la memoria e il vostro amor trascorra o scemi.Allegoria(dal greco allegoréin, "parlare diversamente"): figura retorica consistente nella costruzione di un discorso in cui i significati letterali dei singoli termini passano in secondo ordine rispetto al significato simbolico dell'insieme, che generalmente rinvia a un ordine di valori metafisici, filosofici e morali. La peculiarità di un simile procedimento consiste, quindi, essenzialmente nella capacità di trasformare nozioni astratte e significati morali in immagini spesso intensamente pittoriche, che vanno ben oltre il significato di base dei termini che le costituiscono e si sviluppano in una trama pregnante e allusiva. In questo senso, secondo alcuni, l'allegoria sarebbe una sorta di metafora continuata, estesa ad abbracciare un'intera composizione, come è il caso di apologhi, parabole e favole, nonché di opere quali la Divina Commedia di Dante e il Faust di Goethe. Oggi, a questa interpretazione, che affida all'allegoria il compito di trasmettere valori sovrasensibili e nascosti, ma comunque universalmente riconoscibili all'interno di un determinato codice, si sostituisce un'interpretazione più soggettiva, in cui personaggi, esperienze e situazioni particolari, rappresentati come reali e concreti, diventano allusivi di una realtà diversa e più generale senza caricarsi necessariamente di spiegazioni dimostrative e didattiche.Allusioneconsiste nell'affermare una cosa con l'intenzione di farne intendere un'altra, che con la prima ha un rapporto di somiglianza. Un simile procedimento può trarre origine da un evento storico (per esempio, l'espressione una vittoria di Pirro per indicare una vittoria inutile e pagata a caro prezzo, come quelle ottenute dal re dell'Epiro, Pirro, contro i Romani) oppure può derivare da eventi e personaggi del mito e della letteratura, come nelle espressioni un labirinto, per alludere a una situazione indecifrabile o a luogo intricato oppure Don Abbondio, per indicare una persona vile e paurosaAnacolutoanacoluto: (dal greco anakólothos, "che non segue") indica una frase il cui andamento risulta irregolare, a causa di un cambiamento di soggetto nel corpo dell'enunciato. Un simile uso, tipico per lo più dei poeti, è invalso anche presso gli scrittori in prosa, che lo adottano nell'intento di riprodurre i modi della lingua parlata e per caratterizzare determinati personaggi. Classificato nelle grammatiche scolastiche come un errore in...

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