2.0 Literature Reviews
Fill material is usually being used by the engineer for many purposes such as to construct the dam, build the support for highway pavement and landfill to support the foundation. The fill material that use for construction will be compacting layer by layer to increase the strength each layer. W. V. Ping, Guiyan Xing, Michael Leonard, Zhenghai Yang (March, 2003) stated that ‘With such fills, compacting the soils is always necessary to improve the engineering properties.’ The test is conduct to study by using the various laboratory compaction methods on the cohesionless soil e.g.; vibrating table test, Vibrating Hammer Compaction Test, Compaction test using Standard Proctor and Modified Proctor. The result from the various compaction methods will be measure and compare among them so that we can determined which test is more proper way to be done during the laboratory. The material to be testing is by using the sand. The sand is mostly being used for the embankment backfilling.
After backfilling the embankment using sand, there is probability will occur settlement when the compaction process taking place. The compaction process involving the mechanical energy to expel the air void from the soil with minimal or any change in the water content and to tight up the soil particle to increase their strength characteristics. From the Multiquip Inc., Soil Compaction Handbook (2011) stated that; ‘Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. If performed improperly, settlement of soil could occur and result in unnecessary maintenance costs or structure failure. ‘
There is different compaction compare to the consolidation. Vincent P. Drnevich, Aaron C. Evan and Adam Buser Proschaska (2007) studied that: ‘Compaction differs from consolidation of soil, which is the reduction of voids in a saturated soil over time due to the expulsion of water. The process of compaction alters and improves the engineering properties of soils. When soils are compacted to a denser state, they will exhibit higher strength, lower compressibility, and lower permeability. Since it is expensive and time consuming to determine these properties, they are often estimated through the water content and degree of compactness of a soil mass.’
2.2 Compaction types
In order to measure the comparison of compaction test in the laboratory, there will be various techniques will be testing. The test will be separate into four types:
2.2.1 Impact Compaction Test
This test, the soil sample in the mould will be drop by weight at certain height to be fix repeatedly by the number of blows. The weight can be adjusted to measure the compaction desire to be achieved. This method known as the Standard Proctor Hammer Test and the Modified Hammer Test.
22.214.171.124 Standard Hammer Proctor test
Figure : Standard hammer proctor test by Multiquip Inc., Soil Compaction Handbook (2011)