Fiscal Policy Essay

5283 words - 21 pages

1

EKONOMSKA POLITIKA

Ekonomska politika je dio državne politike koji se bavi odnosom države i gospodarstva.

Postoje četiri vrste ekonomske politike:

Politika cijena i dohodaka

Monetarna politika

Fiskalna politika

Politika ekonomskih odnosa s inozemstvom ( vanjskotrgovinska politika)

Pod ekonomskom politikom razumijevamo svjesne, namjerne promjene određenih ekonomskih varijabli (instrumentalnih varijabli) koje čine subjekti ekonomske politike,radi ostvarenja nekog unaprijed određenog cilja. Potreba za promjenama ekonomskih varijabli nastaje kada spontani tijek ekonomskih događaja ne vodi ostarenju željenog cilja. Pri ostvarivanju ciljeva ekonomska politika se služi određenim sredstvima- instrumentima. Instrument je,prema tome, sredstvo s pomoću kojeg se određeni cilj ostvaruje.

Ekonomska politika se može ilustrirati stablom,koje ima četiri grane koje predstavljaju vrste ekonomske politike: politika cijena i dohodaka; monetarna politika; fiskalna politika i politika ekonomskih odnosa s inozemstvom (vanjskotrgovinska politika). Svaka grana tj. vrsta ekonomske politike ima ogranke,mjere, instrumente ekonomske politike.To stablo raste na tlu koje se zove ekonomska analiza. Kao što i na slabom tlu stablo teško raste, tako ni ekonomska politika ne može biti dobra ako ima slabu analitičku podlogu.

Ciljevi ekonomske politike su brojni, ali kao osnovne moglo bi se izdvojiti:
ostvarivanje poželjne stope gospodarskog rasta uz održivi razvoj i konkurentnost, smanjivanje stope nezaposlenosti (nova radna mjesta, težnja punoj zaposlenosti), stabilnost cijena (suzbijanje inflacije), uravnotežena platna bilanca (smanjivanje deficita izvozom, manjim uvozom), smanjenje siromaštva i povećanje socijalne stabilnosti preraspodjelom dohodaka, mjerama socijalne politike.

Većina ciljeva ekonomske politike ne može se istovremeno provoditi u potpunosti jer su često kontrarni jedni drugima. Zbog toga je važna lista prioriteta među ciljevima koju određuje izvršna vlast - nositelj ekonomske politike pojedine zemlje.

2. FISKALNA POLITIKA

Pod pojmom fiskalne politike obično se podrazumijeva korištenje instrumenata javnih financija tj, javnih prihoda i javnih rashoda, za ostvarivanje ciljeva ekonomske politike. Fiskalna politika se bavi načinima prikupljanja novca u državnu blagajnu i njegovog trošenja. Sastoji se od porezne politike i politike javnih rashoda.

Pojam politika potječe od grčke riječi polis = država tj. riječi politikos = državni, javni, građanski. Politika je djelatnost vezana za upravljanje odnosno rukovođenje državom.

Pojam fiskalan potječe od latinske riječi fiskus, koja označava državnu blagajnu i pravnu osobu koja je nositelj imovinskih prava i zastupa je u svim njezinim imovinsko-pravnim odnosima.

Fiskalna se...

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