Before beginning an analysis of a company it is necessary to have a complete set of financial statements, preferably for the pas few years so that historical trends can be obtained. Ratios are a way for anyone to get an idea of the financial performance of a company by using the information contained in the financial statements. Ratios are grouped into four basic categories, liquidity, activity, profitability, and financial leverage. This document will use a variety of these ratios to analyze the firm, Sample Company, as of December 31,2000.
Financial Statement Ratios
The ratios returns on investment (ROI) and return on equity (ROE) are two of the most popular measure of profitability of a company and, along with the P/E ratio, have the most significant value of any of the ratios. The DuPont Model expands on the ROI calculation by inserting sales and it's relationship to the companies' generation of profits and utilization of assets into the calculation. Additional profitability ratios include the price earnings ratio (P/E), the dividend payout and the dividend yield. The price earnings ratio helps to indicate to investor how expensive the shares of common stock of a firm are. Dividend yield is part of the stockholders ROI and is represented by the annual cash dividend. Dividend yields have historically been between 3% to 6% for common stock and 5% to 8% for preferred stock. Dividend payout ratio shows the proportion of the earnings paid to common shareholders. Dividend payout for manufacturing companies range from 30% to 50%, but can vary widely.
Dupont Analysis (ROI) - Return on Investment
The return on Investment (ROI) is important because it describes the rate of return the company was able to make on its assets. The ROI, use net income or operating income, as amount of return and average total assets as the amount invested. In general, the average ROI for American merchandising companies is between 8% and 12% when using net income, and average margin is 5% to 10%. When using operating income it is between 10 and 15% and average margin is also 10% - 15%. Asset turnover is another important component of the DuPont model and is usually in the range of 1% to 1.5%
ROE Return on Equity
The return on equity conveys the profits of the company as a rate of return on the amount of owners' equity. ROE uses average owners equity over the specified time period and net income. Historically a ROE of between 10% and 15% were considered average. Recently higher rates in growth industries have been greater.
Price earnings ratio (P/E)
In general, the higher the ROI and rate of earnings growth, the higher the P/E. . In the past, for a very long period of time P/E ratios in the range of 12 to 18 were consider good P/E ratios for a company. In recent years, the 12 to 18 values have been abandoned as a norm and what can be considered the norm now is under debate.
Sample Companies' Profitability Ratios
ROI for Sample...