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Fitts And Posner's Phases Of Learning

1494 words - 6 pages

Fitts and Posner's Phases of Learning

"Performance may be thought of as a temporary occurrence … fluctuating
from time to time because of many potentially operating variables. We
usually use performance to represent the amount of learning that has
occurred, for the process of learning must be inferred on the basis of
observations of change in performance."¹[1]

These are Fitts and Posner's phases of learning:

Cognitive: This is the initial stage of learning and therefore is
essential if the learner is to progress to the next stages with any
success. For example, a golf player at a cognitive stage will look at
how a type of shot is executed and try to copy it. They are likely to
hit the ball in the wrong direction, or not at all. Another example is
when a netball player learning a chest pass, they are likely to miss
where they are aiming and it is likely to feel a little awkward, as it
is something they haven't done before. A final example is in a game of
volleyball, where a learner is trying to set the ball, it is likely to
hit the palms of their hands, rather than the fingers, and therefore
not get enough height on it, and so the ball is likely not go over the
net. The learner gathers information from range of sources, of which
at this stage, the most efficient is usually a demonstration, which
allows them to see the key requirements and to work through the
performance mentally. To learn the skill, it must be demonstrated
correctly, otherwise the requirements will not be clear, and therefore
the main guidance necessary at this stage is visual. During this
stage, the learner has little fluency and their movements are

Associative: This is the second stage of leaning, where the leaner
performs skills moderately well, with a little consistency and
occasional continuity. The learner practices the skill according to
the information they received in the cognitive stage. For example, a
gymnast may perform an arobspring moderately well, but not have
straight legs or a presentable entrance or exit. Another example is in
table tennis, when playing a game, a player may be able to hit on one
side of the table then the other, but when they are required to hit
one extreme after the other, the results are not successful. A final
example is in hockey, where the player can, most of the time, hit the
ball correctly, but has a few problems with accuracy i.e. getting the
ball to a specific player. It is essential for the performer to gain
feedback about their performance at this stage, to understand what
they are doing right and wrong. Feedback includes knowledge of
performance and results to allow association of kinaesthetic feedback

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