The plants are divided in the shoot that is above the ground, and the root system that is under the ground.
Buds: Lateral buds are the ones that will produce branches; terminal bud is the one that will make the plant grow upwards.
Node: The parts of the stem were the leaves and buds will grow.
Internode: The place between two nodes.
Leaf: The one that makes photosynthesis and pass it back to the stem.
Stem: Carries food made by leaves to the rest of the plant and carries water with dissolved salts from the roots to the leaves and flowers.
The root system:
Roots: They anchor the plant in the soil and prevent it falling over or being blown by the wind.
Leaf: It is attached to the stem by the leaf stalk, which continues in the leaf as a midrib. Midrib is a network of veins which deliver water and salts to the leaf and carry away the food made by them. The leaf blade is a broad and vertical part of the leaf.
Epidermis: It is a single layer of cells on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. Functions:
*Keep the leaf shape.
*Prevent bacteria and fungi from getting in.
Stomata: It consists of a pair of guard cells surrounding an opening, or stomatal pore. It can close or open. It generally opens on daylight and closes during the evening and most of the night. Functions:
*Allow CO2 to diffuse into the leaf were it is used for photosynthesis.
*Prevent excessive loss of water vapour.
*Controls exchange of gases.
Mesophyll: It is the tissue between upper and lower epidermis. It consist of two zones, palisade mesophyll and spongy mesophyll.
Palisade mesophyll: Long and contain many chloroplasts.
Spongy mesophyll: Vary in shape and fit loosely together, leaving many air spaces between them.
Their function is to make food by photosynthesis.
Veins: They transport water needed for sugar to the mesophyll. It has many branches so every cell has a near water supply. Phloem cells...