Fluid And Electrolytes Made Easy Study Notes.

1952 words - 8 pages

Fluid and ElectrolytesHomeostasist State of equilibrium in internal environment of body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survivalt Body fluids and electrolytes play an important roleWater Content of the Bodyt Accounts for 60% of body weight in adultt 70-80% of body weight in infantt Varies with gender, body mass, and ageCompartmentst Intracellular fluid (ICF)t Extracellular fluid (ECF)l Intravascular (plasma)l Interstitialt TranscellularIntracellular Fluid (ICF)t Fluid located within cellst 42% of body weightt Most prevalent cation is potassium (K+)t Most prevalent anion is phosphate (PO4-)Extracellular Fluid (ECF)t Fluid spaces between cells (interstitial fluid) and the plasma spacet Interstitiall Most prevalent anion is chloride (Cl-)l Most prevalent cation is sodium (Na+)l Expands and contractsl 2/3 of ECF in interstitiumt Intravascular (IV)l Within vascular spacel Measured with blood testsl 1/3 of ECFTranscellular Fluidt Small but important fluid compartmentt Approximately 1Lt Includes fluid inl Cerebrospinal fluidl Gastrointestinal (GI) tractl Pleural spacesl Synovial spacesl Peritoneal fluid spacesMechanisms Controlling Fluid and Electrolyte Movementt Diffusiono Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentrationo Occurs in liquids, solids, and gaseso Membrane separating two areas must be permeable to substance for diffusion to occurt Facilitated diffusiont Very similar to diffusiont Specific carrier molecules involved to accelerate diffusiont Active transporto Process in which molecules move against concentration gradiento Example: sodium-potassium pumpo ATP is energy sourcet Osmosist Movement of water between two compartments by a membrane permeable to water but not to a solutet Water moves from area of low solute concentration to area of high solute concentrationt Requires no energyt Osmotic Pressureo Amount of pressure required to stop osmotic flow of watero Water will move from less concentrated to more concentrated sideo Determined by concentration of solutes in solutiont Hydrostatic pressureo Force within a fluid compartmento Major force that pushes water out of vascular system at capillary levelt Oncotic pressureo Osmotic pressure exerted by colloids in solutiont Protein is major colloid in vascular systemFluid Movement in Capillariest Amount and direction of movement determined byl Capillary hydrostatic pressurel Plasma oncotic pressurel Interstitial hydrostatic pressurel Interstitial oncotic pressure{See Figure 16-8 in the textbook}Fluid Shiftst Plasma to interstitial fluid shift results in edemal Elevation of hydrostatic pressurel Decrease in plasma oncotic pressurel Elevation of interstitial oncotic pressureFluid Shiftst Interstitial fluid to plasmal Fluid drawn into plasma space whenever there is increase in plasma osmotic or oncotic pressurel Wearing of compression stockings or hose is a therapeutic action on this effectFluid Movement Between Extracellular and...

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