A mother of a young child called the Vermont Department on February 5 to report the possibility of a foodborne disease outbreak after her child aged 5 years and two other children of her neighbor aged 7 and 10 years became ill with a lot of vomiting and diarrhea that took place within an interval of 12 hours. The child’s sickness became severe that the mother took her to a local hospital where she was kept at the emergency department.
The mother stated that the child complained of nausea at 10 o’clock the 2nd day of February, later, the child began vomiting and having multiple episodes of diarrhea, she was not able to eat or drink anything without vomiting. As it approached evening, the woman took the child to the local hospital where she was admitted at the emergency department, here they noted the child was dehydrated and had a lot of fever. The stool and blood specimen of the child was collected and the child was given intravenous fluids as a treatment and later she was released; the following day the mother made follow ups on the test results for the child and it turned out the stool culture displayed negative results for usual bacteria (Brehm-Stecher et al, 2009, p. 1774).
Two children who were nearby neighbors reported to have nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fever, this were similar symptoms to that of the other child even though these two children were not as ill as the woman’s child. These symptoms began a few hours earlier than that of the woman’s child and the two children were able to go to school the following day after becoming ill. The three children did not play together from time to time and they only attended a birthday party the 1st day of February, one of the main concerns from the mother was the homemade ice cream that was served at the birthday party and she heard the ice cream was prepared using raw eggs.
The first step in the epidemiological steps is to provide test characteristics for norovirus and its outbreak using clinical criteria, methods that will be used in the collection and the characteristics used in diagnosis of norovirus. Kaplan criteria can be used in detecting norovirus outbreak, this criterion has a high sensitivity of detecting an outbreak of norovirus and in situations where there is vomiting and a brief duration of the illness and a mean incubation of 24 to 48 hours, the criteria has high sensitivity. During specimen collection, a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method can be used and if one of the tests turns out to be positive, the test sensitivity will be great. During the diagnosis of norovirus the characteristics of EIA that include reverse transcriptase, EM, ELISA and nucleic acid will undergo amplification that is sequence based in order to detect norovirus that is present in the human fecal specimen (Wymyslo, 2011, p. 40).
Epidemiological steps taken to address questions asked within the case study
Interventions for norovirus intervention and prevention will deal with viral...