This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Foreign Influence In Persia Essay

3295 words - 13 pages

During the 19th century the monarchy was only the most dominant of several powerful groupings within Iranian society, the others being the tribal leaders, the landlords, and the mujtahids, Shi’i Muslim theologians and scholars empowered to interpret and administer religious law (the only law in force).1 Their religious control over the Iranian people and identification with popular anti-foreign struggles following the war with Russia, an independent source of wealth through a religious tax, and control over the law courts and education were the roots of their power. The growth in the mujtahids' appeal during the 19th century was partially attributable to the growth of Western influence.2 Iranian traders were upset by foreign competition and Muslims, in general, were offended by the arrogance and behaviour of Western infidels. As a result many people turned to the mullahs to voice their grievances.3 The rivalry between Great Britain and Russia for strategic and economic advantage largely shaped Iran’s history from the 19th century onwards. Both countries deemed their presence in Iran to be absolutely vital in the pursuit of their individual imperial goals, but ultimately neither could attempt to annex or colonise Iran without incurring the risk of a major war.4 In this way Iran's independence was simultaneously guaranteed and compromised:5 guaranteed, excluding extraordinary circumstances, by a strategic stalemate which transformed the opposition into the more economic realm; compromised, because the Qajar Shahs were forced to play an unending balancing act between the two.6
In 1872, economic rivalry between Russia and Great Britain entered a new phase when Nasir ed-Din Shah granted a British subject a "comprehensive country-wide monopoly."7 Baron Paul Julius de Reuter, the founder of the famous news agency, was not thinking particularly of oil when he applied for a concession which transpired to become, in Lord Curzon's words, "the most complete and extraordinary surrender of the entire industrial resources of a Kingdom into foreign hands that has probably every been dreamt of, much less accomplished, in History."8 The concession included a monopoly of the construction of railways and tramways, canals and irrigation works, the exploitation of forests and all uncultivated lands, operation of banks and public works, and the exclusive working of Iranian mines except those of gold, silver and precious stones.9
By 1903 Muzaffar ed-Din Shah was again short of money, and in order to obtain another loan from the Banque d'Escompte,10 he instructed Monsieur Naus, the Belgian in charge of the customs administration, to negotiate secretly with the Russians for a extreme revision of the tariff rates.11 The new rates devised were highly favourable to Russian imports and equally damaging to British imports. Naus was reported to have been taking advantage of his position by accruing an enormous fortune by fraud.12 His activities only stoked the fire of the...

Find Another Essay On Foreign Influence in Persia

The Peloponnesian War: The “Great War” of the Ancient Greek World

964 words - 4 pages by Persia had been defeated, and Sparta had become the leading power of Greece. However, this would be short lived. Soon after the war Sparta retreated into its typical isolationist ways. Which left Athens the chance to become the new leader of Greece. While the Persians may have been defeated in 479 B.C., the threat of attack still remained. An alliance of the city-states of Greece was needed in order to ensure protection against foreign

Political Systems DBQ Essay

710 words - 3 pages citizens could ostracize those who seemed like a threat to their democracy. Because the culture of Athens, under the influence of Pericles, was revolved around the people, and not by a restricting king, Athens had a glorious Golden Age. Philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle developed new ways of thinking. Also, great art was produced. In the Parthenon, there was roughly a 50-foot statue made from gold of Athens’s patron goddess, Athena. There were also many Greek comedies and tragedies made playwrights like Sophocles and Euripides that commoners enjoyed watching. Even though, Athens seemed great, unlike Persia, its government was corrupt.

The Persian Wars and Their Effect on Western History

1053 words - 4 pages The two Persian Wars, the first lead by the Persian Emperor King Darius in 490 B.C. and then the second by his son Xerxes from 480 -479 B.C. are often considered to be a crucial turning point in western history. The empire once known as Persia is now made up of the modern day countries of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan all eventually following the Islamic religion. Most of their neighbors in the region are also Islamic states, compared to

The World without the Seven Years’ War

1271 words - 6 pages Before and during the Ottoman revolution, Persia saw her economy, now benefiting from strong trade from India and the East coming through the Suez Canal, rocket ahead of the struggling Afro-Greco-Ottoman Empire, but with trade freed up in the empire, they had once again become the dominant state, meaning their recent gains in the east did not go unnoticed. A war with Arabia over Islam becoming "too secular" saw the Ottoman Constituent gain

Nationalist Movements of the Middle East and South Asia after WW1

1112 words - 4 pages dominated by outside powers. Egypt was under British control and Persia was divided in to Russian and British spheres of influence. The Ottomans tried to promote change with the Tanzimat reforms which allowed some industrialization and modernization. However, in 1908, the Young Turks took over and attempted faster change. Unfortunately, the Young Turks sided with the Germans in WW1, so the Middle East was directly involved in the war. The Ottomans were

"Daughter of Persia" by Sattareh Farman Farmaian

2239 words - 9 pages Daughter of Persia1.) Farman Farmaian, Sattareh with Munker, Dona. Daughter of Persia (New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1992)2.) Sattareh Farman Farmaian's book Daughter of Persia, is an autobiographical account of Farman Farmaian's life and the development of and politics in Iran from the end of the 19th century through the Islamic Revolution in the late 1970's. Sattareh Farman Farmaian was born in Iran (formally known as Persia

kings collge chapel

1025 words - 5 pages Safawid rule over Persia originates from Shah Isma'il’s capture of Tabriz after hisvictory over the Aq-Qoyunlu ruler Alwand at Sharur in 1501 A.D. However, before Isma'il could be regarded the successor to the Aq-Qoyunlu in Azarbayjan he would have to defeat the ozbegs and the Ottomans to produce a contiguous Persian State. This would take decades to accomplish. Overall, The Safawid state established by Shah Isma'il relied on three

Don't Mind if I Do How Islamic culture was borrowed in part from pre-Islamic culture that had already existed

682 words - 3 pages that Judaism, Christianity and Islam were all meant to be one religion, but corruption led to the need and split of the ahle kitaab into three distinct sections. One can infer then, that all aspects in the prior religions that had been preserved from the debauchery should apply to Islam as well. The second large scale influence on Islam was the Sasanid Persia. The Sasanid Lakhmids established the societal and traditional principles that are

Why did sparta not manage to get control over a large part of the greek world that athens did?

2290 words - 9 pages Why did Sparta not manage to get control over a large part of the Greek world that Athens did?In 550BC the Spartans defeated Tegea, this was followed by Argos in 544BC. From 520-490BC under king Cleomenes Sparta was seen as the leader of the Peloponnese and the leader in Greek defence against Persia. In 490BC the Peloponnesian league was created with Sparta as the recognised leader. Despite all this, the Spartans never managed to get control

The Role of Diplomacy and International Relations in the 19th Century

1009 words - 4 pages settlement, territorial expansion, and political influence. Their foreign policy decisions continued until the Congress of Verona in 1822. Since Napoleon’s control of France and conquest of Europe arose from the French Revolution, the members of the Holy Alliance, Prussia, Austria, and Russia, believed in the importance of intervention by larger nations whenever revolution threatened the internal government structure of a state. Since this

The Peloponnesian War

1441 words - 6 pages the Melians, but the Spartans refused. Instead, the Athenians demolished their long walls, abandoned their empire, surrendered their fleet, and agreed to follow Sparta’s lead in foreign policy. As victors, the Spartans found themselves dominant in a Greece where polis was suspicious of polis and where, within each polis, faction disputed with faction. From Ionia, which the Spartans sold back to Persia as the price of their assistance, the

Similar Essays

American Influence And Foreign Policy In Iranian Revolution And Iranian Hostage Crisis

1580 words - 6 pages Did American foreign policy and influence lead to the Iranian revolution and spark the Iranian hostage crisis? Part A This investigation determines to what extent American foreign policy, within the years 1953-1982, caused the Iranian embassy siege. Furthermore, it questions the role that the Carter and Kennedy administrations had in furthering the American agenda within Iran. In order to assess the role American influence played, this

The Role And Influence Of U.S. Foreign Policy In Modern Greece

2740 words - 11 pages The Role and Influence of U.S. Foreign Policy in Modern Greece United States and Greece are tied by a common heritage and shared democratic values (Greece Relations with U.S.). In fact, approximately 1.1 million Americans are of Greek heritage, and Greek-Americans comprise the seventh largest recipient of U.S. social security benefits. It is not surprising that this community has played an important role in strengthening Greek and U.S

Unity Vs. Corruption Essay

1221 words - 5 pages Even though all types of governments that have existed have had their strengths and weaknesses, it is still possible for one government to come out on top. The governments of both Persia and Athens were different. Athens had a direct democracy or an administration that was ruled by the people in which the citizens made decisions in the government directly. On the other hand, Persia was a monocratic bureaucracy or a government in which was

The Orientalist Essay

907 words - 4 pages , in a manner to construct Orientalism as a Western style for dominating over the Orient (Said 2-3). It is paramount to note that Orientalism does not seek to convey a negative connotation, but to imply that the distinction between the East and the West does exist; to represent the West culturally. Sullivan often articulated Orientalism’s influence on The Rose of Persia through referencing prior works and a myriad of allusions to Middle Eastern