Fossil F Uels Are A Finite Resource

2757 words - 12 pages

Many nations count on coal, oil and natural gas to supply most of their energy needs. Fossil fuels are a finite resource. Fossil fuels also causes air, water and soil pollution and produce greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Renewable energy from sources that are replenished as fast as they are used. Examples include energy from the sun, wind, moving water and plants. Wind and solar energy are clean sources of energy that have the potential to make a significant contribution to New Zealand economy. New Zealand is rich in renewable energy resources more than developed countries and much of its energy meets by harnessing the power stored in rivers, lakes and geothermal fields. ...view middle of the document...

Large amounts of electricity needs to be transmitted over long distances of grid between the generation and the load including the transmission across Cook Strait between the two islands via the HDVC link. Transpower is planning upto 1.5 billion of new investment but before it gets final they need to assure the electricity commission that there is a better way of doing this for it to undergo the procedures.
The purpose of the North Auckland and Northland Grid Upgrade Proposals submitted as the Transpower 2007 grid upgrade plan is for Transpower to obtain approval from the electricity commission to recover the costs with the NAAN project. This project would ensure reliable electricity supply to the North of Auckland and the northland area beyond 2013. In order for a proposed investment to be approved by the Electricity Commission it must meet the requirements of the grid investment test (GIT). In general terms, the GIT requires that a proposed investment of the grid reliability standards has a lower expected net market cost or a higher expected net market benefit than any “alternative projects” as defined under the Rules, in a robust manner with respect to sensitivity analyses. (

In this report I have outlined two proposals which could become alternatives for Transpower national guideline. The first option is that cross harbor cables and new Pakuranga to Penrose circuits. This option will compromises a 220kv cable circuit, which was from Pakuranga to Penrose in 2013, a 220KV from Penrose to Albany, via the twisted flow tunnels also which are called duct tunnels. It is somewhat similar to it with a long duct where blocks and barriers of different sizes may be placed on the floor to control the wind speed and turbulence variation with height. Also the Auckland Harbor Bridge and also via new GXP’s with 220 kV Transpower bus adjacent to the existing vector substations at Hobson Street and Wairau Road in 2013. It also comprised of a second cable circuit from Pakuranga to Penrose in 2062, a cable from Penrose to Roskill in 2028 and associated works that relate to this one. One of the alternatives considered, the Cross Harbor Cable option which consists of a PAK- PEN route and a new harbor cable followed by a PEN ROS cable has the lowest expected net marker cost. (

The next option is to increase the capacity of the existing system. This comprises of replacing conductors on the Otahuhu- Henderson which is a 220 kV double circuit with high temperature conductors in 2013 and a 220 KV cable circuit from Pakuranga to Penrose in 2013. There are also replacing conductors on 110 KV lines parallel to the Otahuhu to Henderson, a 220 kV double circuit with high temperature conductors between 2021 and 2040 and a second 220 Kv cable circuit from Pakuranga to Penrose as per the proposal 1 in 2036. (

The third option is the Roskill...

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