FOUR STAGES OF LEARNING
FOUR STAGES OF LEARNING
There is a wealth of information, both on the shelves of libraries and on the Internet, which addresses the different learning theories that have been suggested over the past three or four decades. Those most often quoted are Kolb and Gardner. While most theorists disagree, or come from a different approach about learning styles, it is generally accepted that there are basically four stages of learning.
Exposure Stage-The first time a concept (such as long division) is new to us.
Guided Learning Stage-When we still can't do the problems without help. This is where most people get stuck.
Independent Stage-With review, guidance, and hard work, we reach stage 3.
Mastery Stage-Comes with more practice, final goal of education.
Regardless of how a student learns, the stages remain the same. It is up to the instructor and the curriculum content developer to assist a student in getting past the guided learning stage to become an independent learner, thus building on newly gained learning concepts or skills.
It has also been shown through repeated studies that students learn in different ways, or through a combination of different ways, thus supporting Smith and Kolb's learning cycle concept.
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see
50% of what they see and hear
70% of what they say
90% of what they say and do
Based on what we have learned, we conclude that students need:
a variety of teaching strategies.
a variety of learning paths.
activities that they can read, visualize, hear, say, and do.
instructional guidance leading to independence.
the ability to work on their own with appropriate assessment methods.
appropriate tools and technology for independent and guided study.
REVIEW OF LEARNING STYLES
As we have already discussed, there is a wealth of information about different learning styles and theories. While many of these theories are methodologies instead of styles, it is difficult to relate one to the other at times. Therefore, I have created a chart that shows the relationships a little more clearly, thus appealing to the visual learner.
use of a video clip, diagram, image or map
identification on maps, diagrams, required drawings or sketches, read and response
mind mapping of concepts (webbing) diagramming, construction of PowerPoint Presentations, readings
reference maps, diagrams, pictures, articles
use of electronic white board, electronic conferencing, chat
lecture, audio clips
sound identification or verbally administered test
projects with audio components, interviews, seminars, giving of reports and speeches, PowerPoint w/ audio component
video or audio clips from a media collection