This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy Essay

1299 words - 6 pages

The principle of both instrumental techniques, conventional and FT-Raman spectroscopy are the same. However, the significant difference in FT-Raman versus conventional Raman deals with instrumentation. In FT-Raman spectroscopy the laser excitation source contains a wavelength that is in the near-IR range in order to eliminate fluorescence that may occur from the sample. Also, in conventional Raman spectroscopy a dispersive grating is used to analyze scattered light. In FT-Raman, the advance alternative to this dispersive grating incorporates the use of a Michelson interferometer for analyzing scattered light. Other instrumental components that are comprised within an FT-Raman instrument ...view middle of the document...

In working in the near infrared region, when a sample is heated it may also emit radiation that can interfere with the signal of interest by appearing in the same spectral region. This factor of thermal effects does not pose as a problem in visible Raman spectroscopy. In order to drastically alter the intensity signals in the visible region due to thermal effects, the sample would have to be heated to an extremely high temperature to produce black-body emission. However, in the near infrared region, even the slightest degree of heat can cause background emission.

3.3 Noise Distribution

Noise distribution is a factor that is only unique to Fourier transform spectroscopy as opposed to dispersive Raman measurements in the visible region. The reason being is because in FT-Raman there is a simultaneous detection of all frequencies of light; due to the Felgett advantage, which was previously discussed above. Considering the fact that there is a simultaneous detection of all frequencies of light, the signal and noise components become indistinguishable. Therefore, they will become mixed at the detector and there will be no way to determine at what particular optical frequency is the noise response coming from. For instance, if the optical filtering device becomes inadequate for whatever reason, then this may lead in an escape of Rayleigh scattering. As a result, the strong noise line that is associated with Rayleigh scattering will be included in the overall spectrum by the Fourier transform process. Therefore, the development of more efficient devices that are capable of completely blocking Rayleigh scattering is always a goal in FT-Raman spectroscopy [1].

4. APPLICATION
Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation.

4.1 Overview of Objective

In this application Philipson et. al. were using FT-Raman spectroscopy as a method of diagnosing skin tumors i.e. malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma in vivo. Their main objective was to demonstrate how FT-Raman spectroscopy diagnoses are influenced by physical properties of skin such as pigmentation. Due to the fact that Raman spectroscopy measured molecular structure, they consider this method to be a beneficial tool for diagnosing skin tumors in vivo.

4.2 Overview of Experiment

In their experiment they were able to obtain Raman spectra, in vivo, from normal skin samples from 55 healthy patient volunteers. There was a wide variety of skin pigmentations (Fitzpatrick skin type I–VI) amongst these patient volunteers. The other skin samples came from patients who contained some sort of skin disease. The statistics from those skin samples are listed as follows: 25 basal cell carcinomas, 41 pigmented nevi and 15 malignant melanomas. The spectral background caused by fluorescence was as a result of an increase in skin pigmentations across the sample pool. However, they were able to perform background corrections...

Find Another Essay On Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy

The tribological behaviour of water dispersion of diamond nanoparticles between sintered tungsten carbide ball and stainless steel plate

1317 words - 6 pages the wear profile for SUS304 which revealed the condition of post-test wear track such as surface condition, wear profile and the depth of the wear. Lastly, the Raman spectroscopy was conducted as standard characterization technique for the carbon system to investigate any formation of carbon composites including DNP or graphite after the sliding test along wear track and the wear of ball[16].  Works Cited [1] Bartz WJ. Lubricants and the

Ground State Potential Energy Curve And Dissociation Energy Of MgHâ€

1336 words - 5 pages , P. F. Bernath (2007). "Ground State Potential Energy Curve and Dissociation Energy of MgH". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 111 (49): 12495. Robert D. E. Henderson, Alireza Shayesteh, Jason Tao, Carl C. Haugen, Peter F.Bernath, and Robert J. Le Roy, (2013). Accurate Analytic Potential and Born–Oppenheimer Breakdown Functions for MgH and MgD from a Direct-Potential-Fit Data Analysis. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A2013 117 (50), 13373-13387 Shayesteh, A.; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Gordon, I.; Le Roy, R. J.; Bernath, P. F. (2004). Fourier transform Infrared Emission Spectra of MgH and MgD. J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10002−10008.

Natural Biopolymer Materials Carboxymethyl Cellulose Based Protonic Conducting Biopolymer Electrolyte and Application in Rechargeable Protonic Battery

642 words - 3 pages characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transference number measurement (TNM). In order to determine the potential of the highest protonic conducting BPE as an electrolyte system in battery, it was used in the fabrication of Zn + ZnSO4•7H2O/BPE/MnO2 protonic battery.

Development of ketoprofen loaded proliposomal powders for improved gastric absorption and gastric tolerance: in vitro and in situ evaluation

616 words - 3 pages dissolution efficiency (DE) (27) at 5 and 60 min, initial dissolution rate (IDR), mean dissolution time (MDT), mean dissolution rate (MDR) and relative dissolution rate (RDR) (28). Solid state characterization Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) FTIR analysis was executed to assess any possible interactions that might have occurred between ketoprofen and other excipients during the formulation. The infrared spectra of ketoprofen

self emulsifying drug delivery system of docetaxal

642 words - 3 pages transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) FTIR spectrum of the samples was recorded by KBr disc method using Perkin Elmer FT-IR Spectrometer (Paragon 1000, PerkinElmer, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) to illustrate the promising interactions among the components used in the formulation. Powder sample (4 mg) and IR grade dry potassium bromide (KBr; 200 mg) were mixed gently in a glass mortar, compacted to form disk by applying a force of 5.5 metric tons using hydraulic press. The corresponding disks were scanned over the wave number range of 4000–400 cm-1 at a scanning speed of 4 scans /s with a resolution of 1 cm-1 for each spectrum.

A comparative study on varied potentials of Aspergillus species in synthesis of silver nanoparticles

702 words - 3 pages hydrodynamic size of the silver nanoparticles was obtained using a Zeta-sizer (Malvern) instrument applying a 660 nm laser. The software was optimized to report summary statistics based upon the intensity of light scattered. Two milliliter sample volumes from each nanosilver dispersion were loaded into glass cuvettes and summary statistics were obtained using triplicate 2 minutes analyses (total analysis time=6minutes). For Fourier transform infrared

Synthesis of Graphene Nanosheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite

759 words - 4 pages A green, simple, and cost effective two step method to develop graphene nanosheets (GNS) by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite and its successive reduction by microwave is reported in present work. The morphology and microstructure of prepared GNS is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet spectroscopy (UV) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR); the experiments confirm the formation of

Biosynthesis and characterization of PHB from Bacillus thuringiensis GVP isolated from soil

1081 words - 5 pages agro-industrial waste like molasses, whey and spent wash. PHB content in the cell was determined as described earlier. Characterization of PHB FTIR spectroscopy Extracted Polymer was thoroughly mixed with KBr. KBr pellet was dried at 100°C for 4 hr. Analysis was done by Fourier Transform IR Spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer,USA) by placing the sample on the holder. The scanning conditions were a spectra range of 4000-400 cm-1. 1H-NMR spectroscopy The 1H-NMR of the precipitate was carried out using BRUKER SPEC Instrument, Germany. The polymer was dissolved in CDCL3 and vortexed for 10 min, sample was placed into NMR tubes and then analysed.

Provesicular Dry Powder Formulations for Pulmonary Delivery of Anti-tubercular Drugs

925 words - 4 pages transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)  Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)  X-ray diffraction (XRD)  Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) • In vitro drug release studies • In vitro dissolution studies • Pulmonary administration of provesicular powders • In vivo deposition studies • In vivo pulmonary pharmacokinetics study • Statistical analysis Materials and methods Materials Anti-tubercular drugs– isoniazid, rifabutin, ethambutol hydrochloride

Development of isradipine loaded self-nano emulsifying powders for improved oral delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

927 words - 4 pages Solid state characterization Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) FTIR spectra of the samples i.e. ISR, neusilin and optimized SNEP was recorded in the scanning range of 4000–400 cm-1 using FTIR Spectrophotometer (Paragon 1000, Perkin Elmer, USA) to illustrate the possible interactions between the drug and the carriers used in the formulation. Lightly ground mixture of formulation sample (4 mg), dry potassium bromide (IR grade; 200 mg

Provesicular Dry Powder Formulations for Pulmonary Delivery of Anti-tubercular Drugs

1815 words - 8 pages collected and analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy and turbidimetric measurement at 650 nm. Solid state characterization Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) FTIR analysis is executed to assess any possible interactions that might have occurred between drug and other components of the formulation. The infrared spectra of pure drug, free components of provesicular formulation and optimized provesicular powder formulation are

Similar Essays

Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy: Solid Sample Analysis

1887 words - 8 pages 13]. However, even with using this dispersant, the variety of particle sizes that may be produced has to be taken into account. This factor alone indicates the level of difficulty that is involved in analyzing solid samples. References: [1] Chase, D. B., and J. F. Rabolt. Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy: From Concept to Experiment. San Diego: Academic, 1994. Print. [2] Hendra, Patrick, Catherine Jones, and Gavin Warnes. Fourier

Experiment 1: Ir Unknown/Spectroscopy Assignment Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

2725 words - 11 pages Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to practice the usage of infrared spectroscopy and to identify the unknown compound # 53 using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer. From the IR spectroscopy, specific functional group peaks are noted and used to aid the identification of the unknown organic compound. Furthermore, in this experiment, another unknown will be given and researched upon its spectral data.Main Reaction: There is not

Tokyo Subway Attack Essay

1028 words - 5 pages their way into the hands of more and more first responders due to reduced costs. Some of these technologies include but are not limited to Raman spectroscopy, multi-gas monitors and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technology Had first responders utilized set procedures and a response plan, the Tokyo Subway attacks could have been handled more effectively, possibly reducing the amount of people injured and contamination. Technology in place in

Role Of Acidic Media In Architecting Of Ammonia Gas Sensing Behavior Of Polypyrrole Nanostructures

2106 words - 8 pages . Kokado, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of conducting polymer polypyrrole: higher order structure of electrochemically synthesized film, J. Phys. Chem. 95 (1991) 6014-6016. [36]. F.W. Zeng, X.X. Liu, D. Diamond, K.T. Lau, Humidity sensors based on polyaniline nanofibers, Sens. Actuators B 143 (2010) 530–534.