Fragility And Development In Liberia Essay

1810 words - 8 pages

Introduction
Since independence, Liberia have struggle with both internal and external problems. The natives resisted the slave-like conditions the settlers employed after independence and the country suffered from financial problems and corruption. At one point, the United States physically took over the Liberia government to prevent bankruptcy. The division and financial problems that plague the nations from the beginning continued until the civil war and post civil war. For 14 years, Liberia fought for the control of the country resources and as a result destroyed roads, schools hospitals, water and sanitation, electricity and livelihoods of survival of the war. By the end of the war, ...view middle of the document...

Looking at the relationship between governance, conflict and development, this paper will examine three fragility indices (foreign aid, corruption and health) and their implication for development.
Post-Conflict Context
The Liberian civil war lasted from 1989 to 2003. In 20 years, the country economy and infrastructure was destroyed. The GDP dropped 90% (OECD, 2012) and exports declined from $486 million in 1978 to 10 million in 2004. The country’s foreign debt increased from 800% of the GDP and exports to 3,100% (Paczynska, 2010). These economic changes greatly affected the Liberian people. Majority of the Liberians could not afford basic needs; and by 2001 76.1% of the population lived below the poverty line and 52% lived in extreme poverty (Kieh, 2009). It is estimated that 250,000 lost their lives and many more became refugees or internally displaced (CIA Factbook, n.d). According to the Interagency Conflict Assessment Framework, the fighting forced large number of people to flee into the city which lead to “an uncontrolled, and unplanned expansion of urban areas which in turn contributed to the deterioration of urban housing, sewage, water and sanitation systems” (Paczynska, 2010, p.11).
The war destroyed roadways, electricity, education and health care. 75% of the education infrastructure was destroyed and schools had to stop operating (Kieh, 2009). In addition, the health system collapsed and disease became widespread. According to the World Bank, health expenditures were $2 per capital annually between 1997 and 2000 and when the war ended, only 50 doctors were left in Liberia (World Bank, )
After Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf became president in 2006, Liberia began peace building and reconstruction. The Ellen administration had the daunting task of developing the nation, without resulting to the same mistakes of her predecessor. Charles Taylor made several mistakes when he became president in 1997. First, he failed to hold those responsible for the war accountable, he did not succeed in disarming and demobilizing ex-combats and he failed to address the root causes of the war and continued to commit gross human rights violation (Waugh, 2011). The Ellen administration, however, took a different path. She was able to successfully disarm and demobilize ex-combatants with the help of the Liberian Women and UN peacekeeping forces (Disney, 2008). The Truth and Reconciliation commission was established and the administration vowed to make human rights one of its priority.
The Ellen administration had some success. Between 2006 and 2008, Liberia improved on all indications on the Failed State Index (FSI) (FSI, 2013). The country saw an economic growth of 9.5% in 2007, 7.1% in 2008 and 5% in 2009 (Paczynska, 2010). At the same time, several World Bank lead development initiatives were introduced to Liberia and foreign investment poured in to revamp various sectors (timber, gold, iron ore). Despite these early successes development in Liberia...

Find Another Essay On Fragility and Development in Liberia

Physical and Motor Development in Preschool Children

1078 words - 4 pages and preferences. Most physical disabilities become more apparent during this time, so observing children for common characteristics is important. We can also observe them and find their levels of cognitive and social development. By knowing these levels we are able to develop daily schedules that can work on the weak points in each individuals life. If a child really needs help with their fine motor skills and another child needs to work on their

Personal Experience in Training and Development

2527 words - 11 pages Personal review This programme comes later in my life and career, so I have thought at length on my motivation for embarking on this. My main reason - I still strongly believe, even at this mature stage, this will open opportunities that have previously been closed off. Working for 15 years as a Trainer and Lecturer in Further Education, I have acquired a keener awareness of learners’ personal development needs - which I view as one of my

Motor development and socialisation in sport

3877 words - 16 pages the first major influence in our social and physical development. Children learn their behaviour through the influence of their family, and this extends to the type of physical development activities they are exposed to. 'The family can therefore consciously or subconsciously shape their children's movement behaviour' (Payne & Isaacs 1995:66). Children learn through play and 'play is often based on movement' (Payne and Isaacs 1995:65). However

Child and Youth Development in Canada

2420 words - 10 pages Background This initiative aimed to teach the parents about the importance of nutrition in child development and ways to improve lunches and long term negative effects on unhealthy eating as proper nutrition is an important part of healthy child development. Newcomers to Canada are faced with numerous challenges, and by targeting the low income immigrant parents we hoped to provide some benefit from the additional information. The initiative

Learning and Cognitive Development in Teens

1793 words - 7 pages During middle childhood, children are able to excel in many aspects of development that they could not have obtained before. Children starting around age seven are able to excel in their learning and cognitive development, like being able to read and enjoy going to school to learn something new. They enjoy being able to practice their new knowledge by practicing it until they get it perfect. By this age, middle school age children are able to

Books and Positive Development in Society

821 words - 3 pages Schopenhauer asserts that those who have “made direct use of the book” have contributed to the positive development of society. Not only does Schopenhauer’s statement relate to a book, but it can be extrapolated to apply to media, in general. This statement can be qualified by the practical applications of religious texts, the role of media in its method of displaying information, and political indoctrination and dissent. For secular nations

Human Resource and Technological Development in FedEx

744 words - 3 pages FedEx PAGE 1 Human Resource and Technological Development in FedExFedEx has registered a great improve in its human resource and technological development. In late 2009, FedEx instituted a hiring freeze to eliminate a lot of the compensation benefits to its employees. The part-time employees were no longer allowed to work over 30 hours a week and the full-time employees were only allowed to work overtime once a month at the maximum. FedEx

Character Development in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

702 words - 3 pages Jene Weichenthal Character Development Essay The play "Romeo and Juliet", from William Shakespeare is a dramatic love story. The characters in this play have static and dynamic conflicts. Internal conflicts is a conflict where the person has trouble making a decision. External conflict is when a another person, society, or a situation gets in the way of the character. In this essay I will prove that Juliet is a dynamic character. "What

Voyage and Psychological Development in Homer's Odyssey

3328 words - 13 pages The Voyage and Psychological Development in Homer's Odyssey       Homer's Odyssey arguably stands out head and shoulders above any other piece of epic literature produced by Western civilization for nearly three millennia. Most remarkable is the extent to which the Western hero archetype is to this day still a result of the molding that occurred upon the character of Odysseus so long ago. In imagining a police lineup of the most profoundly

New Drug Reseach and Development in America

2639 words - 11 pages Every day the search is on to develop new drugs to combat serious diseases and disorders like cancer and depression. For many of these new drugs for diseases such as cancer, pharmaceutical companies spend around one billion dollars on research and development (Russell 23). Once a drug is developed in a lab, a lot of research needs to be conducted in real life scenarios to determine if the drug will work as it is designed. The most effective way

Critical Reflection: Development and Geography: gendered subjects in development processes and interventions

1205 words - 5 pages Gender issues have become a great concern to many in the last century. Gender inequality issues and feminism have been on the rise and have become a topic of discussion at many world forums and meetings. In the article Development and Geography: gendered subjects in development processes and interventions, Sarah A. Radcliffe discusses the subject of development and its affect on gender and feminism. She breaks down her article into three main

Similar Essays

Liberia This Is A Story About A Jamaican Girl That Lived In New York And Returns To Jamaica To Find Out That She Cannot Fit In Or Understand The Culture Around Her

2246 words - 9 pages kneel down on the floor. I will deal with you after."The girl, whom Liberia recognized as Anna, proceeded to the corner of the room in front of the girls and knelt on the floor with her head down.Still, then he continued to talk to the girls until his talking seemed to drift away from Liberia's ears and she could supposedly hear chipmunk-like talking. It was no use though. Is was as if his talking alone, his voice, despite her not comprehending

Growth And Development In Babies Essay

1403 words - 6 pages Babies grow and develop at a very rapid rate during the first year of life. They grow physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. However, through this portfolio, I intend to discuss the physical growth and development patterns of the infant through their first year.To begin with, development refers to the baby's increased skill in using various body parts. When dealing with the development of a child there are three basic developmental

Personal Development And Reflective Reasoning In Nursing

1116 words - 4 pages “Maybe reflective practices offer us a way of trying to make sense of the uncertainty in our workplaces and the courage to work competently and ethically at the edge of order and chaos…” (Ghaye, 2000, p.7) In order to fully understand the personal development and reflective reasoning in relation to your development in the Nursing field, one will have to define these two terminologies. Personal development means to include activities that

Sexual And Romantic Development In Youth

2875 words - 12 pages This paper explores the effects of one's context and biology on sexual and romantic development in youth and young adults. I find it perplexing that children mature very differently in terms of their sexuality. This brings to question whether nature or nurture controls one's sexuality and romantic relationships. Many authors debate over the importance of hormones and biological factors versus environmental factors in relation to sexual