France Essay

3624 words - 14 pages

France

France, officiellement Republique francaise, pays d' Europe occidentale, borde au nord-est par la Belgique, le Luxembourg et l' Allemagne ; a l'est par l'Allemagne, la Suisse et l' Italie ; au sud-est par la mer Mediterranee ( golfe du Lion) et la principaute de Monaco ; au sud-ouest par l' Espagne, la principaute d'Andorre et le golfe de Gascogne ; a l'ouest par l' ocean Atlantique ; et au nord-ouest par la Manche et le detroit du pas de Calais, qui separe la France du Royaume-Uni et relie la Manche a la mer du Nord.La France comprend plusieurs iles, dont la plus grande est la Corse (8 569 km²) et dix possessions d'outre-mer, eparpillees sur l'ensemble du globe : Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon (Atlantique Nord), la Guyane ( Amerique du Sud), les Antilles francaises ( Martinique, Guadeloupe), Mayotte et la Reunion ( ocean Indien), les iles et archipels d'Oceanie, dans l'ocean Pacifique ( Polynesie francaise, Nouvelle-Caledonie, Wallis et Futuna), et les terres Australes et Antarctiques francaises (TAAF).La superficie de la France metropolitaine est estimee entre 543 965 km² selon le cadastre et 551 695 km2 selon l'Institut geographique national (IGN), d'apres les mesures geodesiques, ce qui place le pays au 3e rang europeen apres la Russie et l' Ukraine, et au 48e rang mondial. La capitale, Paris, est la plus grande ville de la France. Paris, capitale de la France, chef-lieu de la region Ile-de-France, situee au cœur du Bassin parisien, sur la Seine. Divisee en 20 arrondissements (depuis 1859), la commune de Paris forme a elle seule le departement de la Seine et se situe au centre d'une tres vaste agglomeration qui rassemble les neuf dixiemes de la population d'Ile-de-France. L'agglomeration parisienne, qui jouit d'un grand rayonnement international, est l'une des grandes metropoles mondiales. Paris est situee dans un bassin sedimentaire de faible altitude, au cœur d'une des regions agricoles les plus riches d'Europe. A l'interieur de la ville, l'altitude augmente sensiblement depuis les rives de la Seine (25 m) jusqu'aux basses collines alentours. Le point culminant de la capitale est le sommet de la butte Montmartre (129 m). La hauteur des immeubles du centre ayant ete longtemps limitee a 20 m, soit environ six etages, l'ensemble des constructions est assez homogene. A l'exception de la tour Montparnasse, les grandes tours se localisent principalement dans quelques quartiers recents des arrondissements peripheriques (XIIIe, XVe, XIXe, XXe).Ville dense et fortement encombree depuis le Moyen Age, Paris fut aeree au milieu du XIXe siecle, sur les plans du baron Georges Haussmann, par de larges avenues et des jardins. Cependant, les espaces verts y demeurent rares, compares aux autres grandes metropoles, comme Londres ou New York. Les plus remarquables sont le jardin du Luxembourg, le jardin des Tuileries, le Jardin des Plantes (ancien Jardin des plantes medicinales,)et le parc des Buttes-Chaumont. A la peripherie de la...

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