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Franklin D. Roosevelt: Pearl Harbor Address To The Nation

1436 words - 6 pages


“Yesterday, December 7th, 1941, a date which will live in infamy, the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the empire of Japan.” This was spoken by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during his Address to the Nation on December 8th, 1941. During President Roosevelt’s speech, he used logical appeals (logos), emotional appeals (pathos), and credibility appeals (ethos). Even though President Roosevelt was sitting in a wheel chair during his speech, it was still considered formal because he was the President. The reason this speech took place was to inform the nation about what Japan had done to our country and also to declare war.
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With the help of the Vice Admiral, Chuichi Nagumo, the two came up with the formations of the attack force. In the center, would be the six heavy aircraft carriers. On the outside of those six, were twenty four supporting vessels surrounding.
November 26th, 1941, Vice Admiral Chuichi’s fleet assembled to Tankan Bay, a remote anchorage located in Kurile Islands, then departed in secrecy for Hawaii. To prevent from being spotted/compromising the plan, Chuichi had the ship’s cross the North Pacific Ocean to avoid being seen. On December 7th, 1941, around dawn, the Japanese attack force reached a point about 200 miles north of Oahu, Hawaii. At about 6:00 that morning, the Japanese carried out Chuichi’s orders to release the first wave. This wave consisted of one hundred and eighty one planes composed of different bombers including torpedoes, fighters, horizontals, and divers.
An hour later, the first wave of Japan’s attack force was actually spotted and reported but as seen in the movie Pearl Harbor, it was ignored because it was the same morning that they were expecting American planes to be arriving back to PH. This mistake gave the Japanese the satisfaction of taking the U.S. fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor plus military airfields by complete surprise. The “purpose” of attacking the fleet and airfields first was because they didn’t want any American planes to take off and mess up their mission.
At the time of the attacks, Pearl Harbor had about ninety ships anchored. Eight battleships were present, which were also the primary targets. Meanwhile, the seven that were located on Ford Island, were all bombed and hit by torpedoes. At about 8:10 am, the greatest loss of life that day happened on the USS Arizona. It was bombed by an armor piercing bomb that killed one thousand one hundred and seventy seven crewmen.
Around 10:00 am, the attacks were finished. In total, twenty one ships were either damaged or had sunken. One hundred and eighty eight aircrafts were destroyed, and one hundred and fifty nine were damaged. The total death count of Americans was two thousand four hundred and three, which included sixty eight civilians. The Japanese only ended up losing twenty nine planes, which was less than ten percent of their attacking force.
On the afternoon of December 7th, 1941, Henry Stimson, the Secretary of War, made a telephone call to the president and his chief of foreign policy, Harry Hopkins. The phone call consisted of the horrible news that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor. Around 5:00 pm, after the president was done with meetings with his military advisers, he requested to Congress to declare war. During this time, President Roosevelt pieced together a speech that he would later; deliver to the nation. After he was finished, he revised a typed draft. His secretary, Grace Tuller, prepared the final reading copy.
December 8th, 1941, President Roosevelt addressed the Nation about the attacks on Pearl Harbor. In his speech,...

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