The postmodern theory has been broadly discussed in the works of Jean Baudrillard and Frederic Jameson. Baudrillard refers to postmodernism as a world that is inhabited by all human beings. He relates postmodernism to technology, primitivism, simulation and the hyper-real. He traces postmodernism from the France of 1960s. In his postmodern theory, Baudrillard criticizes the society and culture. According to him, the society has become so reliant on technology and lost touch with the real world. The real has been substituted by imitations of the real. This substitution has made it difficult to differentiate between the real and the artificial “real” world. Baudrillard explains the loss of reality through simulacra, something that substitutes reality through representation. He cites Watergate and Disneyland as examples of simulacra.
Baudrillard describes about three orders of simulacra. The first one is related to the pre-modern era where the real is represented by an illusion, counterfeit or just a marker. He associates the second order of simulacra with the industrial revolution where the break down with the reality begins when products are made in mass and copies of the real products are proliferated, and the third order of simulacra is connected with the postmodern era where the reality is lost and cannot be easily recognized. However, he states that the real still can be found but only through critique and political activism in the second order of simulacra. (Baudrillard, 123).
The movie, Brazil, shows how detached people are from reality. The violence has become the norm and compassion, and a concern for others is no longer important. Even when the bombs go off, people are not surprised. They continue as if nothing happened. Technology and media are used at the transgression of the government. People are prevented from seeing the truth. They in turn become used to their plight to an extent of not caring what happens to their neighbor. Those who try to go against the societal norms like the main character, Sam, are forced to abandon their standpoint or get killed. The connection with the reality is eventually lost completely, and the new societal norm becomes the reality while the reality like lush green landscape seen as an exception while it should be the norm. The rich continue to indulge in luxury while the poor stumble in the poverty (“Another entry,” 2013). This is the ultimate depiction of a capitalism society in where people are defined by what they are worth. Those with continue to look for more even at the expense of the innocent and poor. Mainstream media is also used to dictate what matters and ignite disconnect desires. Urbanization has lead to the degradation and disappearance of the natural world. Sam chooses to escape from his reality and the bureaucratic system but in the end realizes that for his own good, he has to conform to societal norms.
Baudrillard uses media culture, exchange value, capitalism, urbanization,...