French Revolution: Napoleon. Essay

1411 words - 6 pages

French Revolution.-Louis XIV, bankrupted France with his foreign wars and his new palace, Versailles.-Louis XVI financial minister was Turgot. A man of the enlightenment, Turgot tried to tax land [mostly owned by nobles] free tariffs and get rid of the corvee.-Nobles and clergy were exempt from taxation and where against Turgot's plan to tax them. So they made Louis XVI get rid of Turgot and hire Necker, a Swiss banker-Necker financially supported the American Rev. which made a bigger debt for France.-King needed money so the nobles and clergy forced him to call the Estates General, a governing body from the middle ages, to help him get moneyEstates General 3 Estates were:1. Clergy- 1 % of pop. -10% of land2. Nobility- 3% of pop. -20% of land-2 kinds of nobility; 'nobility of sword'-ancient nobility &'nobility of robe'-rich people who became nobles3. Bourgeoisie- Merchants, lawyers, peasants, artisans3rd Estate demanded 3 things:1. meeting in one room-so they wouldn't be ignored2.Voting by individuals, not by estates-bc the clergy andnobility were a minority but they always voted togetherto veto Bourgeoisie3.Double representation of 3rd Estate-since they represented97% of the pop.-cahiers were lists of complaints from the delegates sent to the King-Louis XVI kicked the 3rd Estate out of the Estate General so they met on Tennis courts outside and formed a National Assembly; in response, Louis XVI called the army to Paris-people of Paris stormed the Prison of Bastille on July 14 [Bastille Day in France today] to get ammunition and free prisoners-san-coulutte is the name for the lower class people of Paris who are very radical-peasants also rebelled in the countryside out of the Great Fear-that the nobility were burning their crops-National Assembly made 3 rulings: 1. Abolished serfdom2. abolished the nobility 3. abolished guilds-Natl. Assembly made Constitution of 1789:1. End of Feudalism2. Provinces replaced by departments-intendants replaced by elected officials3. conservative Legislative Assembly formed-King would have veto powers but 2/3 of men in the Leg. Assembly can overrule the King's veto -2/3 of men in France could vote for the Leg. Assembly-Nobles who fled to other countries for help were called emigres-women of Paris marched to Versailles to demand bread and that the King live in Paris-feminist views were first discussed publicly in the Revolution-Leg. Assembly took the land of the clergy and sold it to pay off the national debt and support a new currency. Also, the clergy were put under State control.-Gironde [conservative] and Jacobins [radical federalists] were the 2 main parties in the Leg. Assembly-Danton and Robespierre were 2 leaders of the Jacobins-the Declaration of Pillnitz was made by Austria and Prussia to invite everyone to invade France and end the Rev.-Leg. Assembly called for a national guard but the King vetoed it-angry mobs of Parisians, led by Jacobins, formed a new governing body, the Commune, and forced the Leg....

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