Freud & Erikson Understanding Human Development & Personality. Houston Community College Essay

1959 words - 8 pages

Fred vs Erikson Rajani
Fred Vs Erikson
Developmental psychology is an area of research dedicated to the understanding of child-development. Throughout history many theories have been used to attempt to explain the complex process. Two of those theorists, Freud and Erikson, were instrumental in creating a foundation for child-psychology to build on. From a Freudian perspective, human development is centered on psychosexual theory. Psychosexual theory indicates that maturation of the sex drives underlies stages of personality development. Alternatively, Erikson is considered a neo-freudian scholar who developed psychosocial theory. In Erikson models, there are eight major conflicts that occur during an individual’s life.
Developmental psychology is an area of research devoted to explaining the continuing growth and change that occurs over the course of one’s life. Throughout history many varying theories have been used to attempt to explain the complex process of childhood experiences altering who individuals become as an adult.
From a Freudian perspective, human development is based on psychosexual theory (Wedding & Corzine, 2014). Psychosexual theory indicates that maturation of the sex drives underlies stages of personality development (Shaffer et al., 2010). It was Freud’s perspective that there are three components of personality (the id, ego, and superego) that become integrated into his five-stage theoretical model. The id was the biological or drive component that is innate from birth. The sole purpose of the Id is satiate an individual’s internal drives (Wedding & Corzine, 2014). The ego is the conscious portion of our personality that mediates between our id and superego. Throughout development the ego reflects the child’s emerging ability to learn, perceive, reason and recall information (Shaffer et al., 2010). The superego is developed through parental interaction and is responsible for the moral aspects. It allows an individual to regulate standards, embrace moral values and decides whether the ego has implemented problem-solving strategies that are acceptable (Shaffer et al, 2010; Wedding & Corzine, 2014). Ultimately, Freud believed that sex was the most important instinct influencing personality and any mental disturbance revolved around sexual conflicts that were suppressed from childhood. Furthermore, Freud believed that parents permitting too much or too little gratification of sexual needs led to a fixation on that activity throughout their lifetime (Shaffer et al., 2010). This fixation can eventually lead to a regression in behavior. Regression can determine whether the behavior is psychopathological in nature depending on intensity and changes within their personality (Keri & Wenar, 2006; Lothane, 2006).
Freud created five stages of psychosexual development that includes the oral, anal, phallic,...

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