This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

From A Japanese Transplant To A British Imitation: A Text Analysis Of Imperial Constitutional Outline And The Nineteen

793 words - 4 pages

I. An Overview of the Constitutional Practice in the late Qing Dynasty
After the Hundred Days Reform and the Boxer Rebellion, the rule of the Qing Dynasty he¬aded by Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) was even more in jeopardy. Nationwide movements against the Qing Dynasty and the Manchu were rapidly escalating. Forced by the circumstances, Cixi made an abrupt change in attitude concerning constitutional reform - in 1901, she succes¬sively issued three imperial edicts in the name of the Qing government, admitting that “If laws and decrees do not change, nor do old habits, it is impossible to achieve revitalization’. She decreed the establishment of the Bureau of Government Affairs which is ...view middle of the document...

Reflect in academic sector, the enthusiasm for introducing foreign constitutions, regulations and treatises as well as the passion for studying constitutionalism have been summoned up ever since.
When the Russo-Japanese War ended in 1905, the Qing government was greatly shocked by the result that though being a much smaller country, Japan eventually won the victory. It was generally believed that the victory owed much to the achievements of Japan’s con¬stitutionalism in the modern times. Before the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed, Zhang Jian(1853-1926), a celebrity from Jiangsu Province, had already advocated constitutionalism in “A Letter to Yuan Shikai" saying that “It is not helpful to pay attention to trivialities instead of changing the present regime. If we do not change the regime before the Russo-Japanese situation is settled but still be so obstinate in our own ways, it might be too late for any change after all. ... The result of the rivalry between Japan and Russia is indeed the one between constitutio¬nalism and autocracy. Currently in the world, which country is still in complete autocracy? If this one autocratic country is challenged by all the constitutional ones, will it still survive?"2 Widely cited by modern constitutional treatises, Zhang Jian’s argument was echoed by most of the intellectuals at that time.
After the Russo-Japanese War, the discussion about...

Find Another Essay On From a Japanese Transplant to a British Imitation: A Text Analysis of Imperial Constitutional Outline and The Nineteen

Analysis of Dystopian Novels Nineteen Eighty-Four and A Clockwork Orange

1935 words - 8 pages Analysis of a work of literature - Nineteen Eighty-Four Description Nineteen Eighty-Four describes a world where the most obvious paradox is seen as a commonplace. At least it appears so to the people living in Airstrip One (the former United Kingdom). Winston Smith is one of these citizens who survive on shortages of food and rations of Victory Gin. He believes that his life is being improved day by day even though the reality is the absolute

An Analysis of the Main Theme Presented Within Jack London’s text To Build a Fire

1265 words - 6 pages nature. The man within this text recognizes far too late that he made a horrendous mistake. When the snow falls from the branch above the fire and suffocates it, the man scolds, not nature, but himself, taking accountability for the tragedies for the first time within the text. The truth of the matter was that it was in fact his fault, because the heap of snow would have fallen regardless of whether or not he decided to light his fire beneath it

An essay analysing the transformation of ideas and context from the original text Jane Austen's Emma to the appropriated text Amy Heckerlings Clueless to suit a modern day audience

2943 words - 12 pages updated agendas. As a novel of manners, Emma creates a space between competing ideological extremes of the late eighteenth century. During this period of traditional "aristocratic ideology," based on the hierarchy of social birthright, began to clash with a "progressive ideology" emerging from burgeoning notions of individualism and capitalism. Emma exists as a text enmeshed in this debate and presents a tenuous equilibrium upholding social

"The Human Rights act for ever changes the nature of British society, marking a major turning point in British Constitutional history." Discuss

2358 words - 9 pages fulfil their own obligations to society. It therefore, follows that knowledge of Human Rights and dignity is the very basics of a civilised and democratic state. To some the Act marks 'a fundamental constitutional change…' which represents a strong step forward in Britain establishing a quasi-Bill of Rights 'introducing new values and an altered frame of reference to UK public Law'. To others however, the Act is simply a 'British statute

The British Avant-Garde: A Philosophical Analysis

3208 words - 13 pages The British Avant-Garde: A Philosophical Analysis ABSTRACT: British Avant-Garde art, poses a challenge to traditional aesthetic analysis. This paper will argue that such art is best understood in terms of Wittgenstein¡¦s concept of "seeing-as," and will point out that the artists often use this concept in describing their work. This is significant in that if we are to understand art in terms of cultural practice, then we must actually look at

What is a Heart Transplant?

1398 words - 6 pages Heart transplant is a surgical procedure to remove a person’s diseased heart (orthotopic approach) and replace by a healthy heart from an organ donor. Less commonly, heart transplant can be carried out without the removal of diseased heart and a healthy heart will be positioned (heterotopic approach) to encourage the recovery of the diseased heart of the recipient. Cardiac surgeons will only perform heart transplantation, if only congestive

Outline of Chapter 7 text - Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version(A. Bluman 3rd Ed., 2003)

815 words - 3 pages and a standard deviation. Introduction Estimation is the process of estimating the value of a parameter from information obtained from a sample. Three Properties of a Good Estimator The estimator should be an unbiased estimator. That is, the expected value or the mean of the estimates obtained from samples of a given size is equal to the parameter being estimated. The estimator should be consistent. For a consistent estimator, as sample size

Outline of Chapter 6 text - Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version(A. Bluman 3rd Ed., 2003)

1383 words - 6 pages and randomly selected with replacement from the population.The central limit theorem states that as the size of the samples increases, the distribution of sample means will be approximately normal.Summary (cont'd.)The normal distribution can be used to approximate other distributions, such as the binomial distribution.For the normal distribution to be used as an approximation to the binomial distribution, the conditions np " 5 and nq " 5 must be met.A correction for continuity may be used for more accurate results.ConclusionsThe normal distribution can be used to approximate other distributions to simplify the data analysis for a variety of applications.

OUTLINE of Chapter 4 text - Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version (A. Bluman 3rd Ed., 2003)

1209 words - 5 pages at a time is called a permutation of n objects taking r objects at a time. It is written as nPr, and the formula is:CombinationsA selection of distinct objects without regard to order is called a combination.The number of combinations of r objects selected from n objects is denoted nCr and is given by the formula:SummaryThe three types of probability are classical, empirical, and subjective.Classical probability uses sample spaces.Empirical

Outline of Chapter 8 text - Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version(A. Bluman 3rd Ed., 2003)

1375 words - 6 pages significance to use.After a significance level is chosen, a critical value is selected from a table for the appropriate test.Critical ValuesThe critical value(s) separates the critical region from the noncritical region. The symbol for critical value is C.V.Critical Values (cont'd)The critical or rejection region is the range of values of the test value that indicates that there is a significant difference and that the null hypothesis should be

Outline of Chapter 5 text - Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version(A. Bluman 3rd Ed., 2003)

567 words - 2 pages explained.Random VariablesA random variable is a variable whose values are determined by chance.Discrete Probability DistributionA discrete probability distribution consists of the values a random variable can assume and the corresponding probabilities of the values. The probabilities are determined theoretically or by observation.Calculating the MeanIn order to find the mean for a probability distribution, one must multiply each possible outcome

Similar Essays

A Recreation/Reworking Of An Aspect Of The Text "Nineteen Eighty Four", Such As Adding To The Text

1588 words - 6 pages economy-class area. Most people were finishing off their appetising meals. Winston and the rest of the officers did not receive any form of food for the entire four hours. What did this mean?'Hijackers, hijackers,' he yelled. 'They've hijacked the plane.' Immediate screams could be heard from the back of the plane and the faces of those closest to Winston shot with ghostly trepidation.As the people screamed, a voice from the P.A system of the

Analysis Of A Visual Text

1105 words - 4 pages product to appeal to a wider array of people. There are many aspects of these ads a company could change to do so, such as the scene in which the product appears, as well as the atmosphere that the ad shows. This can be seen by simple opening any two magazines and looking at ads for similar products such as alcoholic beverages. Two ads that can be compared in order to show this are an Absolut Vodka ad from Cosmopolitan and the other an ad for

Japanese Internment: A Lesson From The Past

2528 words - 10 pages Japanese Internment: A Lesson from the Past America is one word that brings the hope of freedom to many people around the world. Since the United States’ humble beginnings freedom has remained at the core of its ideologies and philosophies. People of all races, nations, and tongues have found refuge in America. The National Anthem proclaims, “…land of the free, and home of the brave” (Key, 1814). But has America been

A Discussion Of Three Messages From The Text “Rosencrantz And Guildenstern Are Dead” By Tom Stoppard

758 words - 4 pages The text “R. and G. are Dead” is a story that has a lot of messages and meaning behind a somewhat comical text. R and G are two characters from the famous text “Hamlet” by William Shakespeare. During the course of the play, it flashes from R and G to parts from the play “Hamlet” so that really the people that know the play “Hamlet” are the only ones who really know what is going on. During the course of the play “R. and G. are Dead