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To What Extent Was The Impact Of The 2nd Sino Japanese War On The Gmd Regime Responsible For Ccp’s Victory?

1905 words - 8 pages

To what extent was the impact of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War on the GMD regime responsible for CCP's victory?In July 7 1937, Sino-Japanese hostilities were initiated by the Marco Polo Bridge Incident and lasted 8 years until formal surrender by the Japanese in September 1945. Immediately after war, the GMD turned their attention to resisting the CCP. After four years of full scale civil war, on October 1 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the birth of the China's Republic of China at Tiananmen Square. This essay will analyze the severe consequences that the GMD suffered throughout the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, including the weakened military power, the collapsed economy as well as the rise of strong anti-Japanese sentiment. It will be argued that while the CCP's effective leadership contributed significantly to its success, the impact of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War on GMD's regime was the most crucial factor to CCP's victory.The 2nd Sino-Japanese War was a military catastrophe for the GMD that contributed to the CCP's victory in the civil war. In the 8 years of war, the GMD sacrificed approximately 3 million military casualties fighting the Japanese, significantly reducing the size of army. In addition, increasing government deficits triggered by the Sino-Japanese War strained the supply of military resources, resulting in prevailing malnutrition and clothing shortages in the army. After experiencing such intense suffering, the GMD soldiers were not convinced to fight another war. The army's reluctance is exemplified by renowned Chinese historian, Immanuel Hsu, who stated 'The Nationalist government, which bore the major brunt of the fighting, was so depleted physically and spiritually that it was manifestly incapable of coping with the new challenges of the postwar era.' Therefore, the GMD army was plagued with poor morale, lacked essential discipline and poorly executed Chiang's commands, convincing U.S. to withdraw its financial and military aid. On the contrary, the 2nd Sino-Japanese War was an advantage for the CCP. The 2nd United Front forced Chiang to cooperate with the CCP in order to defend the Japanese, disrupting his attempt to eradicate Communist threat. This opportunity granted the CCP with sufficient time to rebuild their troops and gain support from peasants through propaganda and ideology. Though poorly equipped, inadequately trained and lacking foreign support, they were able to defeat the Japanese in the countryside through guerilla tactics. Their heroic Japanese defeats attracted more peasants to join the Red Army or donate food and clothes. Furthermore, an increasing number of GMD soldiers switched sides to join the Communists, transferring valuable manpower and weaponry from the hands of the GMD to the CCP. Overall, the Sino-Japanese War weakened the GMD in army size, military morale and international support. The CCP army manipulated this opportunity to improve their military status while establishing peasant support, eventually becoming...

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