Frontal Temporal Dementia Essay

1582 words - 7 pages

This essay is discussing a form of dementia identified as frontal temporal dementia. It will discuss the biology of the brain, and the pathology that is associated with the disease. In addition the essay will analyse some of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Furthermore the essay will include a reflection of an actual interaction with a person with frontal temporal dementia for whom one cares.
Frontal temporal dementia [FTD] is a form of dementia that can have very noticeable behavioural symptoms and therefore make the world for the person and their carers really quite impacted by the changes this form of dementia can impart. To explore the reason behind the ...view middle of the document...

Furthermore (Barker, et al., 2012, pp. 76-77) explains that the pre-frontal and temporal cortex is the location of the cortical afferent areas namely the parietotemporal cortical areas, which contains the ventroanterior nucleus and the mediodorsal nucleus, as well as the subcortical afferents known as the basal ganglia which communicates with the thalamus. In addition (Barker, et al., 2012, p. 13) talks about how the interconnection of the brain hemispheres are interrelated by complex pathways of neural interconnected highways, linking neural processes between systems consisting of the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. These systems are made up of axons and neurons collecting and processing information gathered from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex processed though the basil ganglia and the thalamus.
With such important sections of the brain and its interconnections being impacted it is no wonder people with FTD are likely to experience symptoms that impact the way in which they can interact with their family and carers. For example (Delacourte, 2009, p. 1) discusses the damage caused to the brain by FTD can result in language disorders called semantic dementia and also primary progressive aphasia, with the pathological identifiers being namely dysfunction relating to the tau gene or protein. Due to the effect of damage to the frontal and temporal zones of the brain, not only can language be affected, but so to can the ability to regulate emotion and behaviour. In addition Schirer et al, (2014, p. 5) suggests that the pathology associated with FTD is related to the role of Taupathology, especially in the microtubule where normally tau proteins would assist with axonal growth and information streaming. Furthermore it is thought that there is a genetic error in two of the six major tau isoforms which stem from the gene connected to the chromosome 17, these two tau isoforms are identified as 3R and 4R, and it is when they alter that the functioning of axons is compromised.
Therefore when considering the location of where this damage is centred in FTD it is not surprising that the BPSD’s are related to many interpersonal complications as the frontal lobe controls the higher functioning connected with social perceptions and interactions. These compromises as Amthor (2012, pp. 253-255) suggests can cause damage in the lateral prefrontal cortex which can impact a person’s ability to process thought patterns related to wisdom and flexibility, to filter priorities, and process functional changes, and reason suitable choices. In comparison damage to the medial section of the prefrontal cortex or orbitofrontal cortex can impact a person’s ability to make decisions that are appropriate to circumstances due to communication breakdown within the amygdala, which helps to control emotion especially surrounding learnt emotional memories. It is through the amygdala that social intelligence functions through a complex system...

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