Ful Vs Ghp Essay

1755 words - 8 pages

The choice of what to do with a dying patients organs has always been a debate in the medical field. The debate of this situation is between a doctor, Tom, and a very ill patient, Mary. Mary is said to die soon and has deteriorating organs that if taken now are still viable to donate, but will surely kill Mary. The issue is that Mary still believes she will survive even when the truth is that she will die. Tom has three patients in need of organs waiting for Mary’s organs and will survive with the donation. The final decision is that Tom takes Mary’s organs and gives them to the patients. With the article “Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals” by Immanuel Kant, his theory of the Categorical Imperative and his process of the Formula of Universal Law, I will defend that Tom the doctor made the wrong decision in taking Mary’s organs and giving them away. I will also show John Stuart Mill’s theory of the Greatest Happiness Principle and how it measures the happiness of humans with the use of the three ingredients: consequentialism, hedonism, and impartiality and how this theory falls short to Kant’s.
To begin, Mill would take the situation of Tom and Mary and say that Tom made the right choice in giving away Mary’s organs. Mill has a theory that all moral decisions should be chosen only to promote the greatest amount of happiness overall because that is the goal that all beings strive for. This is called the Greatest Happiness Principle (GHP). Mill explains in his article “Utilitarianism” what happiness and unhappiness are when he states,”…actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure” (Mill 10). These pleasures only count for human beings because a beast’s pleasures do not satisfy a human being’s conceptions of happiness. Animal’s pleasures are unethical which is why they are not accounted for in the GHP. The pleasures of animals do not compare and will not satisfy the pleasures strived for by humans because animal appetites do not regard anything as happiness other than the animal’s gratification. The GHP has three ingredients for humans to be able to obtain the most happiness in life which are: Consequentialism which is that the action is right if it has better consequences than alternative actions, Hedonism or the strive for happiness, and Impartiality meaning that each person’s happiness counts the same. Mill would look at the case between Tom and Mary and search for the most happiness that can be promoted by looking at his three key ingredients. Since the donation of the organs to the three in need of organ donation will promote the most happiness, it is clear to make the choice of donating Mary’s organs to make more people happy in the end.
Although Mill gives a good argument on how Tom made the right decision, there are many problems that occur in...

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