Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) And It's Medical Applications

1805 words - 7 pages

INTRODUCTIONFunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technique that plays an important role in determining brain functions and some brain disorders. It is most used by neuroscientists and psychiatrists.The purpose of this report is to discuses the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique and its applications in the medical field.The report begins with brief historical information and an explanation of the physics behind fMRI. This is followed by the current medical applications of fMRI. Finally, some future developments of fMRI are presented.I. BACKGROUNDA. History of Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI)The phenomena of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), on which fMRI relies, was discovered in the late 1940s. Under a magnetic field, the nuclei lose energy in form of NMR signals by the diffusion of protons.Thulborn et al. were doing some researches on solutions and discovered that the change in blood actually is a result of paramagnetism of deoxyhaemoglobin, a haemoglobin that lakes oxygen.Ogawa et al. suggested that the level of blood oxygenation can be used in imaging and monitoring the changes in tissues oxygenation.In 1992, the interests increased in fMRI and researches were done to understand the brain functions involving motor skills, such as finger tapping, as well as recognizing the sound and faces. (6:2)B. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)fMRI relies on the phenomena of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The hydrogen nuclei in water (H2O) are spinning and thus having a magnetic moment. Under a magnetic field, hydrogen nuclei process around the direction of the magnetic field. Some of the nuclei spin parallel while the others spin antiparallel to the direction of the magnetic field. However, the number of the parallel spinners is slightly greater than the number of the antiparallel spinners. The net parallel magnetization is called longitudinal magnetization and is donated as M0.When a short-duration radio frequency pulse of wave is applied, the direction of M0 is rotated. The NMR signals are emitted as M0 rotates back to its normal direction when the pulse is off. (2:31,32)C. Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI)Seiji Ogawa et al. discovered in 1990 the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect at AT&T Bell Labs. Two years later, it was used on human to study the brain function. A BOLD fMRI technique relies on the magnetic property differences between oxyhaemoglobin (a haemoglobin with oxygen attached to it) and deoxyhaemoglobin (a hemoglobin without oxygen). Oxyhaemoglobin is weekly diamagnetic while deoxyhaemoglobin is paramagnetic.It is known that when a part of the brain is activated, more oxygenated blood flows to it. This increases the magnetic resonance signals sent by oxyhaemoglobin in that active tissue. (2:32)(3:1,2)fMRI does not use any radioactive materials at all, not like some other techniques for imaging the brain function. This makes it applicable to be used as many as we like without...

Find Another Essay On Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) and it's Medical Applications

Overview of Neuroimagery Essay

2193 words - 9 pages University Medical Centre’s Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Research Centre conducted an experiment similar to this in 2007 but researching if the violence which we are so frequently exposed to by the media can have an adverse effect on our behaviour. The research showed that the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala (the brain network responsible for controlling aggression) became less active after participants in the

Active Noise Control: The Histroy of Noise Cancellation

694 words - 3 pages speaking and the background noise surrounding the person (722-3). There is a divide between how people hear their voices and how others hear their voices, so that makes it harder to create a program to differentiate between voices and surrounding noise. Active noise control has even more important practical applications. Scientists have been conducting research involving noise cancellation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An fMRI

Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Shuttle and Hemodynamic Brain Scans

1697 words - 7 pages Astrocyte-Neuron Lactate Shuttle and Hemodynamic Brain Scans Hemodynamic brain scans such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) have been of immense utility in the neuroscience fields in illuminating the components and modulation of brain function. However, these hemodynamic brain scans have afforded utility without brain scientists truly understanding the mechanism by which they produce signals

biological essay

794 words - 4 pages combining it with multi-modality integration (Dale & Halgren 20012) of those methods, a greater understanding of the relationship of physiological and psychological principals is achieved. Methods used to achieve multi-modality integration include: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), accredited to (Ogawa & Kwong 1990’s) which is a method of measuring brain activity. When the brain is more active it consumes more oxygen, meeting this

Development of Caffiene

1004 words - 5 pages image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body. This also means that pathological disease changes can be detected and documented. The introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging took a huge leap forward in assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of many sometimes fatal diseases. This has in turn made an enormous impact on our society in medicine and the community today. Magnetic Resonance Imaging gives medical

Various Brain Tumor Detection Techniques

4541 words - 18 pages ]. The brain tumor detection and identification has become more efficient and reliable in the last ten years than in the past hundred years due to involvement of high resolution techniques like Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in medical imaging . Brain imaging has greatly advanced in the last 20 years, due to

Neural Imaging Methods of the Autistic Brain

1328 words - 5 pages recognition), and the anterior insula(which handles perceiving, motor skills, and self awareness). It is easy to see why these areas of the brain are chosen for study, as they primarily deal with a persons social behaviour.Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(FMRi)An FMRi is a method of measuring the blood flow in the brain in order to tell which areas of the brain are being activated. The amount of blood flow to a certain region has a direct

Evaluation of common methods used in the study of cognitive neuroscience.

1345 words - 5 pages . Some of the most common non-invasive brain scanning techniques are EEG (Electroencephalogram), fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and PET (Positron Emission Topography). This essay will evaluate the effectiveness of these methods whilst comparing them to invasive methods in order to assess which of these methods may be the most appropriate alternative to invasive techniques. In order to take on the ethical considerations involve

Alzheimers, and Neuroimaging

615 words - 2 pages -ray photograph. However, other materials, such as clothing or soft tissue do not show up as well, because they do not absorb as well.A CT, Computed Tomography, scan uses x-rays in rotation to take and combine many individual x-rays around the brain. Then the machine is moved along the axis of the patients body. Pinel (2009) and adventually the information is combined to make a 3-D photo of the brain.Next, an MRI, or Magnetic Resonance imaging

Does Detecting Breast Cancer with MRIs Increase the Rate of Mastectomies?

884 words - 4 pages In the last years, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become a very popular method used for the early detection of breast cancer, because it has greater sensibility than mammography. But, opponents of MRI are concerned about this type of examination because of the belief that it may increase rates of mastectomy. However, different studies have been performed and no proof of this has been recorded (Dang and Zaguiyan et al 937). Although many

sapana

581 words - 3 pages illumination. Medical imaging—blend of sensors recording the anatomical form structure like magnetic resonance image (MRI), ultrasound or CT with sensors overseeing practical and metabolic figure exercises like positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Outcomes could be connected, for example, in radiotherapy and nuclear medication. (figure 3)

Similar Essays

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essay

897 words - 4 pages Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance imaging has the potential of totally replacing computed tomography. If history was rewritten, and CT invented after MRI, nobody would bother to pursue CT. --Philip Drew (Mattson and Simon, 1996) WHAT IT IS Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or commonly known as MRI, is a technique used in medicine for producing images of tissues inside the body. It is an important diagnostic tool because it

Medical Imaging The Physics Of Light Microscopes And Magnetic Resonance (Mri) Units

619 words - 2 pages Medical PhysicsExtended Response TaskThe Physics of Medical ImagingBen Cotterill - 23/4/07Part 2 - Studying a medical imaging techniqueMagnetic Resonance ImagingMRIIntroduction The main components used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are a strong magnetic field and a certain radio frequency. The radio frequency tells the computer 'what it sees', allowing the computer to devise an image. The magnetic field is required to allow the radio

Functional Mri Essay

1276 words - 5 pages doctors recommend that you undergo a relatively new procedure called fMRI. This test indicates that you have an operable tumor pressing against your cerebellum. After a long, arduous, and successful surgery you are finally back to normal and can lead a normal life once again. While this may be a bit of an extreme example, it highlights one of the many potential and exciting uses of MRI and fMRI technology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Using Brain Imaging Technologies In Researching The Relationship Between Biological And Behavioral Factors In Schizophrenia

1460 words - 6 pages emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the biological factors and behavior of schizophrenia can be discussed and evaluated. In order to outline and evaluate the use of brain imaging in schizophrenia, it is important to be well informed about the causes and symptoms of the mental disorder. Schizophrenia affects the cognition processes and emotional responses of people which can be seen when they find it