Basic Chemistry Study Notes Essay

794 words - 3 pages

Chemistry Test NotesProtons:Located inside the nucleusHave a positive charge (1+)Have a relative mass of 1Neutrons:Located inside the nucleusHave no chargeHave a relative mass of 1ElectronsLocated outside the nucleusHave a negative charge (1-)Have a relative mass of 1/2000DefinitionsAtomic Number:The number of protons in an atomDetermines the identity of the atomAtoms are typically neutral, in this instance you can use it to determine the number of electronsMass Number:Sum of protons and neutrons in an atomSome isotopes occur in greater numbers then othersProtons + Neutrons = Mass NumberIsotopes:Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers - meaning different neutrons then protonsSome isotopes occur in greater numbers than otherAtomic Mass:The average mass of all isotopesStandard Atomic Notations:136C13 is the mass number6 is the atomic NumberC is the element SymbolBohr Rutherford DiagramElectrons move in definite orbits around nucleusOrbits located at certain distances from nucleusElectrons cannot exist between orbits, but from one orbit to the otherThe maximum number of electrons in the first 3 orbits is 2, 8,8.Electrons are more stable when closer to nucleus.CCompounds


Nitric Acid


Sulphiric Acid


Muriatic Acid




Bleach (SodiumHypochlorite)




Lye (SodiumHypochlorite)


Lime (CalciumOxide)


Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)


Carbon Monoxide


Carbon Dioxide




Table Salt (Sodium Chloride)


Laughing Gas (Nitrous Oxide)


Cupric Sulphate




Limestone (CalciumCarbonate)


Vinegar (Acetic Acid)


Hydrogen Peroxide


Methane (Carbon Tetrahydride)


MolecularPerform covalent bondsShare Valence electronsIonic:Form Ionic BondsTransfer electronsIf they lose electrons they are positively chargedThey are called cation if positively charged and get a + sign.Anion (N for Negative) are negatively chargedOpposites attract - Anions and cations want to bond and become stableElectronic forces bond cations and anions together to make them neutralAluminum and Oxygen Al 3+ O 2- 2:3 Al 2 O 3Cross-Over Rule:Lithium and FluorineLi1+ F1-1 : 1CharacteristicsAlkali Metals:Singly charge positive ionsVery ReactiveLeftside . Group 1Alkaline Earth MetalsVery reactive2nd group from leftTransition MetalsValence electrons present in positive shellGroups 3-12Other Metals are in groups 13-16Non-Metals are in group 13-16Metalloids: used as semi conductorsHalogensVery reactiveNoble Gases:Stable because the maximum number of electrons are in the outer shellRare Earth Elements:Man made. Group 3Polyatomic Ions:Polyatomic means many atoms and refers to ionic compounds with more than two elementsOne of the ions (usually the anion) is a charged molecular compounds with more than two elementsOne of the ions (usually the anion) is a charged...

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