Basic Chemistry Study Notes Essay

794 words - 3 pages

Chemistry Test NotesProtons:

Located inside the nucleus

Have a positive charge (1+)

Have a relative mass of 1

Neutrons:

Located inside the nucleus

Have no charge

Have a relative mass of 1

Electrons

Located outside the nucleus

Have a negative charge (1-)

Have a relative mass of 1/2000

DefinitionsAtomic Number:

The number of protons in an atom

Determines the identity of the atom

Atoms are typically neutral, in this instance you can use it to determine the number of electrons

Mass Number:

Sum of protons and neutrons in an atom

Some isotopes occur in greater numbers then others

Protons + Neutrons = Mass Number

Isotopes:

Atoms of the same element with different mass numbers - meaning different neutrons then protons

Some isotopes occur in greater numbers than other

Atomic Mass:

The average mass of all isotopes

Standard Atomic Notations:

136C

13 is the mass number

6 is the atomic Number

C is the element Symbol

Bohr Rutherford Diagram

Electrons move in definite orbits around nucleus

Orbits located at certain distances from nucleus

Electrons cannot exist between orbits, but from one orbit to the other

The maximum number of electrons in the first 3 orbits is 2, 8,8.

Electrons are more stable when closer to nucleus.

C

Compounds

Name

Formula

Nitric Acid

HNO3

Sulphiric Acid

H2So4

Muriatic Acid

HCl

Ammonia

NH3

Bleach (SodiumHypochlorite)

OCl

Water

H20

Lye (SodiumHypochlorite)

NaOH

Lime (CalciumOxide)

CaO

Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)

NaHC03

Carbon Monoxide

CO

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

Ibuprofen

C13H18O2

Table Salt (Sodium Chloride)

NaCl

Laughing Gas (Nitrous Oxide)

N2O

Cupric Sulphate

CuSo4

CalciumHydroxide

C2CO3

Limestone (CalciumCarbonate)

CaCO3

Vinegar (Acetic Acid)

CH3COOH

Hydrogen Peroxide

H2o2

Methane (

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