Opportunistic Fungal Infections Essay

1133 words - 5 pages

Fungal infections are either opportunistic or endemic ubiquitous fungi that exist freely in the environment cause endemic fungal infections. On the other hand, opportunistic fungal infections only cause disease when the immune system degrades [1]. Opportunistic fungi are commensal with the host and a very low intrinsic virulence to cause until the immunity is altered. Some of these include: Candida species, Aspergillus species, pneumocystic jirovecii and Cyptococcus neoformans. These disseminate diseases such as: oral candidiasis (oral thrush), genito-urinary disease and ocular or sinus infections which may spread to involve the Central Nervous system [2]. Opportunistic fungal infections are mainly immunocompromised individuals such as: those with HIV, extensive surgery, haematological disorders, and those who have corticosteroids, cytotoxic and suppressive chemotherapy. As a result, their neutrophils drop to abnormal counts, a conditioning know as neutropenia. This state predisposes these patients to many opportunistic fungal infections such as: candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis and pneumocystis among others [3].

Candidiasis is a common fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals caused by Candida albicans- a normal oral flora in the genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract and on the skin. It form bio films on any surface and cause both mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised hosts disseminated as: oral thrush, vulvovaginitis, endocarditis among others [15]. Although Candida albicans still remains the major cause of nosocomial infections, other non albicans candida species such as: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis are increasingly becoming common. According to Pfaller et al., 2007, Candida glabrata was the second most cause of invasive infections in the USA while the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Surveillance Program revealed that Candida albicans was the major cause of fungal infections followed by Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis respectively. The major predisposing factors to candidiasis are: T-Lymphocyte deficit, renal dysfunction, HIV infection, cancer, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplantation.
According to Levy et al., 2009, HIV infection lowers the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of the host leading to decreased levels of phagocytic and cytotoxic cell which are vital cells in anti-fungal immunity.
As a result, Candida albicans uses its yeast-hyphal switch to penetrate into deep epithelial walls and endothelia human tissues to cause disease. In addition, Candida albicans possesses cAMP dependant pathways such as Efg1 [18] transcription factor that controls and regulates its morphogenesis and secretes putative virulent factors such as phospholipase A,B and C which are hydrolytic enzymes and proteinases that destroy many host factors, speed up the yeast's host adherence and penetration [19, 20].
Consequently, increasing...

Find Another Essay On Opportunistic Fungal Infections

Treatment of Acute and Chronical Bacterial Prostatitis Caused by Staphylococcus Epidermidis.

2240 words - 9 pages / Department of Urologic SurgerySpitalul Judetean Resita / The Hospital of ResitaRO-1700, Resita , RomaniaAbstractPurpose : Previously considered solely as the laboratory contaminants and normal flora of skin in man, coagulase negative Staphylococci are now a major cause of nosocomial and opportunistic infections. This article presents the various possible treatments of bacterial prostatitis caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis , which we

Pathogens And The Spread Of Disease

2681 words - 11 pages they are classed as superficial. If the deep layers of the skin become infected then they are subcutaneous, and thirdly if someone breathes in the pathogenic fungal spores then they can end up infecting, the blood stream and organs. These diseases are called systemic and are the most severe type (Society promoting fungal science,2005b). Fungal infections usually occur due to opportunistic pathogens; these affect people who have a suppressed


1386 words - 6 pages these opportunistic infections? HIV targets and destroys the command centre of the immune system, as effectively as a cruise missile attack. It targets particular blood cells - the CD4 T lymphocytes, so named because of the presence of a protein called CD4 on their surface. The main function of CD4 T cells is to regulate the activity of other cells in our immune system, such as those which produce antibodies, by releasing "hormone-like" substances

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

4866 words - 19 pages replicates by changing its RNA genome into DNA, and inserting it into the host cells own DNA. It also discusses the effects of the virus on the CD4 T cells, and how this has a negative effect on the immune system, resulting in many kinds of opportunistic infections and cancers. This article also discusses the various types of antiretroviral drugs available, and the ways in these work to block parts of the HIV lifecycle, inhibiting replication. It

A Case Study in the Pharmacological Regime of an AIDS Patient

3181 words - 13 pages (200 cells/µl). In the late stage of this phase, the patient is rendered highly vulnerable to opportunistic infections, certain neoplasms and neurologic complications which are considered indicators of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).Describe the pharmacodynamics of each of the drugs Rodney was prescribed linking this to the pathology. Justify the pharmacological regime, including choice of drug, changes to the regime, dosages and

Features of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi

2883 words - 12 pages that attacks the immune system, it does this by invading cells and replicating itself. After many years of living with HIV a person's immune system can become weak and allow opportunistic infections to occur. One or more or a list of infections is known as having an AIDS defining illness. HIV is present in blood, semen and breast milk of infected people. For transmission to occur direct fluid to fluid contact needs to

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS

2386 words - 10 pages clinical symptoms. During this clinical latency period, antibody concentration and viral load will reach equilibrium. As the patient progresses toward clinical AIDS, the viral load will increase and cause a decrease in the CD4 count (Harmening, 2005). A patient is said to have clinical AIDS when the CD4 count is less than 200 u/L and this allows for the onset of opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

2091 words - 8 pages . Fungal infections are also common in patients after chemotherapy. Antifungal medications are given if the broad-spectrum antibiotics do not kill them. It is important for the client to stay hydrated before and after the treatment. It is also important for the client and their family to receive psychological support. This can help the patient maintain a positive attitude and adjust to the new stresses in their life. It can also help the family


2136 words - 9 pages , butconicidentally with the appearance of AIDS,. other debilitating problems began to doappear more frequently. The most common was swollen glands, often accompaniedby extreme fatigue, weight loss, fever, chronic diarrhea, decreased levels of bloodplatelets and fungal infections in the mouth. This condition was labeled ARC (AIDSRelated complex).The isolation of HIV in 1983 and 1984 and the development of techniques toproduce large quantities of the

Microbial Proteases

7311 words - 29 pages by comparing the deduced amino acid sequence with that of B. thermoproteolyticus thermolysin and B. subtilis neutral protease.Pseudomonas. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and can cause fatal infections in compromised hosts. This virulence is related to the secretion of several extracellular proteins. P. aeruginosa secretes two proteases, an alkaline protease and an elastase. The alkaline protease genes (apr) from P. aeruginosa

TB in India

5137 words - 21 pages .3. Pulmonary TBPulmonary involvement occurs in about 75% of all HIVinfected patients with TB. (Deivanayagam et al 2001; Ahmad and Shameem 2005; TB/HIV: A Clinical Manual 2004). Unlike other opportunistic infections which have a selective range of CD4 in which the disease occurs, TB occurs throughout the course of HIV. The interaction between HIV and TB in persons coinfected with HIV and TB is bidirectional and synergistic. Clinical presentation

Similar Essays

Fungal Infections In Immunocompromised Hosts Essay

1217 words - 5 pages Fungal infections in immunocompromised host are common and are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. These are either endemic- caused by ubiquitous fungi such as: Histoplasma capsulatum and Mucor spps or opportunistic fungi such as: Candida species, Aspergillus species, pneumocystic jirovecii and Cyptococcus neoformans. Opportunistic fungal infections are the most common fungal infections seen in immunocompromised and are

Virulence Factors And Evasion Of The Human Defense System Of Fungus

1567 words - 6 pages A dimorphic fungus known as Candida albicans is the highest investigated and most common fungal pathogen in humans, capable of evading the human complement system. It populates the oral and genitourinary cavity surfaces, the digestive tract and triggers an array of infections that are dependent upon the character of latent imperfections in the host. As a former hospital employee that has witnessed firsthand accounts of the increasing degree

An Analysis Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

1953 words - 8 pages clinical problems that HIV sufferers have are; · Weight loss · Fungal nail infections · Oral ulcers · Angular cheilitis (inflammation of the mouth) · Herpes · Respiratory tract infections · Chronic diarrhoea · Fever · Thrush · TB · Pneumonia · Acute renal failure · Dementia There are some clinical problems caused by opportunistic infections. These take

History Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

5232 words - 21 pages drug may prove effective. Effective drug treatments are available to fight many AIDS-associated opportunistic infections, and these treatments have provided clinical benefit and prolonged survival for individuals with AIDS. Recent drug treatments for PCP have dramatically decreased illness and death due to this opportunistic infection. Antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B and fluconazole are effective against AIDS-related fungal infections