Gagalnya Pembangunan Essay

788 words - 3 pages

Review buku "Gagalnya Pembangunan"Bab 7 Tujuh Ketimpangan Menjelang Akhir Orde BaruOleh Andrinof A ChaniagoNama : Hanna M.S. SihiteNPM : 1206254845Kejatuhan ekonomi Indonesia sehingga menjadi krisis terparah di antara negara-negara Asia yang terkena krisis bersumber pada struktur sosial dan ekonomi rapuh dan kemerosotan moral sosial yang drastis pada masyarakat selama kurang lebih sembilan tahun terakhir pemerintahan Orde Baru. Namun kerapuhan ini tidak terlihat oleh para ahli ekonomi Indonesia, mereka hanya melihat bahwa sumber kerapuhan itu adalah fondasi makroekonomi dan juga faktor kelemahan institusi.Pada bab ini dibahas tujuh fakta tentang berbagai ketimpangan yang menyebabkan pergolakan ekonomi, sosial, dan politik di Indonesia sejak akhir 1997 hingga Mei 1998 dan yang membuat krisis dan ketidakstabilan ekonomi Indonesia sangat sulit untuk dipulihkan hingga bertahun-tahun.Ketimpangan Kesatu: Kesenjangan Penyebaran Aset di Kalangan SwastaKepemilikan asset dan perolehan omset di antara badan-badan usaha di Indonesia sangat terkonsentrasi pada usaha skala besar terutama pada Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN), padahal tenaga kerja Indonesia sebagian besar bekerja pada usaha-usaha kecil dan menengah. Usaha-usaha swasta skala besar dan BUMN pun memiliki masalah yang akhirnya membebani masyarakat. BUMN banyak yang tergolong tidak sehat. Sedangkan usaha-usaha swasta skala besar banyak melakukan hubungan tidak sehat dengan bank-bank BUMN sehingga membuat perbankan ambruk.Ketimpangan Kedua: Kesenjangan Ekonomi antar SektorPada masa awal Orde Baru, industri yang padat modal dan industri besar yang memperkerjakan buruh murah mendapatkan sorotan utama. Sedangkan sektor perekonomian dan usaha kecil kurang mendapatkan perhatian. Hal tersebut menunjukan terjadinya pengabaian keserasian pembangunan ekonomi yang bersifat lintas sektor untuk mengejar pertumbuhan ekonomi setinggi-tingginya. Namun, kesenjangan ini bisa ditutpi pada tahun 1980-an dengan minyak dan hasil-hasil alam yang digunakan untuk menjalankan politik subsidi pembangunan.Dekade 80-an, pembangunan sektor peroperti di Indonesia terus meningkat. Antara tahun 1992-1997, pembangunan sektor properti di Jakarta mencapai angka tertinggi di dunia. Pemerintah mendapat banyak pemasukan baik legal maupun illegal dari pajak dan retribusi bisnis properti. Tapi, pemerintah tidak sadar bahwa mereka sedang berlari diatas fondasi yang rapuh. Kesenjangan ekonomi antar sektor ini terus berlanjut dengan ancaman pukulan balik yang bisa menghancurkan semuanya.Ketimpangan Ketiga: Kesenjangan antar WilayahSebagai konsekuensi dari struktur ekonomi yang berkembang, kesenjangan pembangunan antarsektor malah makin memperparah kesenjangan antarwilayah. Karena ciri spasial dari kegiatan sektor-sektor andalan dalam menggerakkan pertumbuhan ekonomi adalah aktifitas utamanya yang terkonsentrasi di Jabotabek dan beberapa kota besar di Jawa, maka dampaknya terhadap hubungan ekonomi antarwilayah adalah beberapa daerah telah...

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