Section 1: Life and Major Achievements
Date and place of birth and death
Galileo Galilei was an astronomer from the Renaissance period whose ideas sparked reform from traditional views of church and science. He was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy which was at that time the centre of change in the renaissance period which sparked cultural reform across the Western world. At the time the head of the Christian Church, the Pope had authority over all Christians in Western Europe and possessed great economic and political power[footnoteRef:1]. Galileo’s father Valcenzo Galilei was a musician and musician theorist and lived with his family of 7. His contribution to the renaissance period was informed greatly by his own education, he continued working until his death because of old age in Arcetri, Italy, on January 8, 1642, even though by then he was blind. [1: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Roman-Catholicism/The-age-of-Reformation-and-Counter-Reformation]
In 1570 Galileo moved to Florence where in his mid-teens he attended the Camaldolese Monastery of Vallombrosa where he became literate and learned Latin. In 1583, Galileo began his medical studies. While studying he became fascinated with other subjects especially mathematics and physics in which he excelled at. At the university, Galileo was taught Aristotelian philosophy which was then the leading scientific authority and the only one approved by the Catholic Church[footnoteRef:2]. He accepted the philosophy like every other Christian in the late-middle ages.[footnoteRef:3] Due to financial difficulties, he was forced to leave the university in 1585 before completing his degree. [2: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotelianism-renaissance/] [3: https://www.biography.com/people/galileo-9305220]
· 1586, Galileo publishes The Little Balance, it described the hydrostatic principles of weighing small objects and this led to his construction of the hydrostatic balance in 1604.
· In 1602 Galileo invented the laws of pendulum’s and stated that they were constant.
· In 1603 Galileo constructed the first thermoscope.
· In 1606 Galileo published The Operations of the Geometrical and Military Compass. In this work, he reforms a military compass, it showcases his relatively unknown skills with practical technology application.
· 1609, Galileo heard of the Dutch invention of the telescope, it inspires him to build his own improved version and he constructed the Galileo Telescope.
· March 1610, Galileo publishes The Starry Messenger. In this paper, he shares his findings that the moon is not flat but is shaped like a sphere with mountains and craters, he also shares his discoveries of the moons around Jupiter[footnoteRef:4]. [4: http://www.sites.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/galsidnun.html]
· 1612, Galileo published Discourse on Bodies in Water, this paper reveals why objects float[footnoteRef:5]. [5: ...