Why was Gallipoli such a failure?
Gallipoli is a small peninsula off the coast of Turkey. It connects the black sea and the Aegean Sea; it is also a direct sea route to Russia. During World War 1 Gallipoli was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. The allies had a plan to take over Gallipoli so they could get supply ships and troops to and from Russia, also storm the capital of the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople (now Istanbul).
I believe that Gallipoli was such a failure for the following reasons:
Bad Planning was one of the main aspects as to why the Gallipoli campaign failed; there are many reasons why bad planning was blamed for the failure. The allied forces had no up-to-date intelligence because there was no aerial reconnaissance. Most of the troops sent to Gallipoli had no combat experience.
Bad leadership was a reason why the campaign failed. The three main leaders were: Winston Churchill, Lord Kitchener and Sir Ian Hamilton. There were many bad decisions made by the main leaders during the campaign. Some bad decisions made were: There were no supplies sent to the exhausted, injured and disease ridden troops and all possible supplies would take 2 weeks to get there. Troops were sent in wrong directions and got told to go up and over countless times and just got massacred in cold blood. Decisions like this lead to the death of many men and the loss of the battle.
Difficult Terrain was a fairly big factor about the failure because the troops had to live in trenches for months on end. They were not prepared for the harsh Turkish winter and in the summer it was baking hot and like a desert. The troops did not have the right equipment and resources to live in these conditions.
Strong Turkish defences. The Turks were very well prepared, well trained, experienced and high spirited. Germany, allies with Turkey during the war, supported them by giving them weapons such as heavy artillery, machine guns, rifles and ammunition. They were lead by Liman Von Sanders. When allied troops charged at the Turkish trenches the Turks open fired and killed almost everyone who tried to get anywhere near them.
Failures of the navy. The navy was meant to bombard and take out the Turkish trenches but failed. There were not many mistakes made by the navy apart from this one but this was partly to blame for the massacre of the allied troops in the trenches.
Was Gallipoli Avoidable?
If mistakes were not made it would have been a successful battle for the allies. For example, if the allied intelligence had been good they would have known where the artillery cannons, mines, troops and military bases...