In densely populated areas, we currently see a
paradigm shift in personal mobility. For the younger generation,
car usership is gradually replacing the need of car ownership.
However, for example, when relying on car sharing solutions,
users often spontaneously drive cars they are not used to. Results
are increased stress and a higher risk of accidents. For that
reason, we present a mobile application-based training solution
for vehicular user interfaces. The evaluation of the training
application has shown that a short training cannot counteract
the negative influence of operating comfort car functions while
driving. The use of game design elements in the application in-
creased the ...view middle of the document...
A study of the U.S.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has
revealed that secondary and tertiary tasks in vehicles, such as
adjusting the radio and other devices integral to the vehicle
contribute to over 22 % of all investigated crashes and near-
crashes. However, is has been shown that many of these
problems can be overcome by a short training phase .
In this paper, we describe a novel concept for automotive
user interface training that uses gamification for boosting the
users’ motivation. The concept has been implemented in a
mobile application (see Fig. 1) and its influence on the driving
behavior has been evaluated in a driving simulator study. Our
work represents an example for targeting at the potential users’
preferences: a mobile application that can be used on the move,
feels like a game, and provides a basis for a more relaxed
The structure of this paper is as follows. We begin with
presenting related work, where we focus on vehicle func-
tionality and driver behavior, existing training solutions and
on particularities of gamification. Subsequently, we describe
the implemented gamified training application. We introduce
the conducted study and present our experimental findings
in a comprehensive way. We finally share lessons learned in
order to inform the design of future automotive user interface
An analysis of the in-car design space by Kern et al.
shows the enormous increase of mainly comfort functions
and, thus, control elements in the last few years. The analysis
shows that the development is not only driven by the car
manufacturers, but also the drivers demand for more comfort.
With longer commutes, a car becomes more than just a means
of transportation. It can be seen as “multi-functional living
space” where people consume media, communicate, or even
work . With the increasing number of control elements,a one-to-one mapping is no longer possible and the intro-
duction of multi-purpose input/output-devices was necessary.
The different functions are no longer obvious and some kind
of experience and training is necessary. For our concept, we
assume that especially secondary (mostly safety increasing
functions, e.g., activating turning signals or windshield wipers)
and tertiary driving tasks (comfort functions including infotain-
ment system) need to be trained, as the primary task of driving
should be well-practiced and equal between different car types
and makes (the difference of automatic and manual shifting is
not considered here).
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