Lung cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the lungs; it can either be in one or also in both. The growth of the lungs makes it easier for tumors to grow in them, which then causes cancer. Some symptoms that a person with lung cancer experiences is the following: coughing, pain in chest, shortness of breath, changes in voice, harsh sounds when breathing etc. There are different causes of lunch cancer in humans, the number one cause would be tobacco smoking, and other causes would be exposure to radon, secondhand smoke and air pollution (Zang, & Wynder, 1996). Another risk factor would be work place exposure to asbestos, diesel exhaust and other strong chemicals. For example, Kaphingst, Lachance, and Condit (2009) state that there are cases in which lung cancer occurs in younger people who may not be exposed to these factors but have certain genetic changes that can also be a cause.
There may also be random events that cause lung cancer, which researchers are still trying to figure out (Weinstein, Marcus, & Moser, 2005). Researchers are continuing to find better ways of treating and caring for patients who are diagnosed or and at risk to getting lung cancer. In this study we will be looking into the following research questions regarding lung cancer and its relation to gender. Our first research question would be who is more prone to lung cancer, men or women. The null hypothesis would be that there is no difference between gender and lung cancer.
This study will be looking into gender differences being related to lung cancer. Studies look into gender differences because of the leveling off of men being diagnosed with lung cancer and the continuing rise of women being diagnosed with lung cancer (Healy, 2014). Our independent variable in this study would be lung cancer, which is a nominal variable, and our dependent variables would be gender, which is a nominal variable. The variables used in this study are connected to the information on the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) because it is regarding a health issue that has been an ongoing research study for years.
Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). For this study we will be using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). This survey gathers data that accesses an individual’s information on their personal experience regarding the specific diagnosed cancer. Our study being conducted will be using HINTS 1 (2003) and HINTS 2 (2005). HINTS 1 had a sample size of an estimated amount of 6369 participants and HINTS 2 had a sample size of an estimated amount of 5586 participants. Both HINTS (2003 and 2005) surveys used random digit dialing (RDD) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The RDD and CATI survey were used by the operator calling the participants and asking the survey questions. The participants answered the survey questions by dialing the number key corresponding to the correct answer.