Gender equality has been a hot-button topic in the United States for quite some time. Groups have been pushing for equal opportunities for women in politics, the workplace, and essentially all facets of life. Universities aren’t exempt to this push, as policies have been passed to ensure equal rights for women in academics and athletics. Title IX was introduced to the college sports world in 1972. It is a federal law that prohibits discrimination based on gender in schools that receive federal funding. It covers both the academic realm of universities as well as their athletic programs. In the athletic aspect, Title IX was introduced as a way to provide equal opportunities for female athletes (Title IX History). Much has been made about this law, including claims that it takes away from men’s sporting teams at universities. It was widely accepted that men’s intercollegiate football was the big revenue generator for most schools. Some believed that providing equal opportunity for women’s athletic programs would take away money reserved for men’s football, thus making the programs less powerful. This paper will discuss how Title IX truly impacts men’s sports and whether these claims are supported by factual evidence.
History of Title IX
Title IX is a federal law that was introduced in 1972. Its key aim is to limit the discrepancies between gender in education. Title IX covers ten different areas, among which include access to higher education, career education, education for pregnant and parenting students, employment, learning environment, math and science, sexual harassment, standardized testing, and technology (Title IX History). The tenth area covered by Title IX is the one reflected upon in this paper: athletics. This law has been around for almost forty-two years now, and many amendments and attempts to change the law have been proposed. The law itself has not been as effective as it was intended to be, as many schools are still not fully in compliance with Title IX. President Richard Nixon signed Title IX into law on June 23, 1972. After being signed into law, the 70s was a decade of attempts to amend the law and complaints against the law. In 1976, the NCAA filed a lawsuit to challenge Title IX regulations, which of course was unsuccessful. In the 80s, more attempts were made to limit the effectiveness of the law, including the case Grove City vs. Bell, which ruled that only programs receiving direct federal assistance were applicable to Title IX, which caused athletics to no longer be covered. In 1988, the ruling in Grove City vs. Bell was overturned, making athletics once again covered by Title IX. In the 90s, hearings were held in both the House (May 9, 1995) and the Senate (October 18, 1995) in regard to Title IX regulations, but once again no changed were made to the law. In July of 1998, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) explained the requirements for Title IX. It was stated that law required that...