Gender Pay Gap also referred to as Gender wage gap, gender income difference or male-female income difference refers to the difference between the earning of men and women (Victoria, 2006). The European Union defines the Gender Pay gap as the difference between men and women’s hourly earnings (OECD, 2012). The difference may be measured on hourly, weekly, monthly, or yearly earning. The difference is expressed as a percentage of the men’s earning. However, the difference varies from one industry to another, from one country to another and from one age group to another. On average, men earn higher than women do across different sectors and nations.
Gender Gap Pay per country
i. United States of America
The United States has one of the highest gender pay gaps among the developed countries. In the country, the gender pay gap is measured as the ratio of female to males yearly earning among workers in full-time, year round (FTYR) earnings. In 2009, female FTYR earned 77% (0.77) as much as the FTYR male workers (US Census Bureau, 2013). The history of Gender Gap earning reveals USA has made big strides towards reducing the gender pay gap from 1980. For instance, in 1980 the gender pay gap ratio was 0.62 while in 1990, the gap stood at 0.72. Further from 1990 to 2000, the gap reduced to 0.73 and then to 0.77 in 2009. Currently, the gender pay gap stands at 0.76 and continues to persist (US Census Bureau, 2013).
Further data shows that in Woman’s lifetime, she will earn 77% of what a man will earn. However, there are controllable factors, such as job position, race, job industry and other factors, which affect the Gender Pay Gap. For instance, the US Department of Labor found that when such factors were considered, the gap could be brought from 23% to 4.8% and even to 7.1%. Although the gender pay gap affects all women across genders, it is worse in women of the African American and Hispanic groups. For instance, the Hispanic women earn only 53% of what their male counterparts as compares to the Asian American women who earn 87%. The factors that have been attributes to the gender pay gap range from education, occupation, hours worked, and direct and indirect discrimination in the labor market (Victoria, 2006).
Figure: Chart Showing the Changing Gender Pay Gap in U.S, 1980-2013 (US Census Bureau, 2013)
After graduation, women earn less by their male counterpart after 1 year of working. For instance, in business majors, women are paid USD38, 000 while men earn over USD$45,000. In the engineering sector, mean earn USD$55,142 as compared to women at USD$ 48, 493, which is represents a ratio 0.88. The computer and information sciences sector has the highest gap at 0.77%, where men earned USD $39,618 and women at USD$51,296 (AAUW, 2013)
For the Biological and physical sciences, education and humanities, there was insignificant gender pay difference. This can be represented in the graph below:
Figure: Graph Showing Gender Pay Gap, one...