This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Gender In International Relations Essay

1654 words - 7 pages

International relations (IR) is the study of relationships among countries. As an academic field it uses normative theory to provide a conceptual framework with which the discipline can be analyzed. These theories can be divided into two fields. The first, positivist/rationalist, focuses on state-level analysis to determine causal explanations of why or how certain phenomena occur. Things that are important to this type of theory are state interactions, size of military forces, balance of power, etc. The second field, post-positivism, rejects the idea that the social world can be studied in an objective and value-free way. This field focuses on constitutive questions about important ...view middle of the document...

For example, liberal feminism focuses on women’s ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. Different strands of feminism focus on different themes but, all of these different strands of feminism have a unique influence on introducing different perspectives to the field. Feminist’s share the principal concern that the “approach to IR must be responsive to women, reflect their experiences, and seek to transform their lives in a manner that recognizes individual agency and corrects disproportionate power imbalances” (Mertus, 323). Despite the slight and varying differences within feminisms the central goal of their theories is to draw attention to areas that have otherwise been ignored by traditional IR theory. That is why it’s important to bring different and new methods into the field. Gender (like class, ethnicity, age, etc) can help inform our understanding of how people/nations act. An example of this can be seen with our perception of war. A masculine construction of war defines men as takers of life and women as providers of it. Therefore, men’s inherent nature is defined as being aggressive and threatening, whereas women are defined as exactly the opposite. From this construction women have no place in war, and are therefore excluded from it. This concept of war still influences IR theories today and is not limited to just this theory, other areas like sovereignty, foreign policy, etc are also constructed in this manner. Therefore, feminist international relations is a relevant theory, not only for women, but because it introduces us to many factors that are missed within traditional IR studies, and give us a way to change the theories and language associated with it.

International relations are examined in terms of levels of analysis who’s concepts are those that define and form the international system. This international system is characterized by the overarching concept anarchy. The concept of anarchy is the foundation for realist, liberal, neorealist, and neoliberal international relations theories. While constructivism disputes this idea, choosing instead to believe that anarchy is a construct of states in the system. Important concepts in IR including sovereignty and power, which according to Pettman “war and the world are either ungendered, written in a language of ‘man’ where women are invisible” or it is “profoundly gendered where it is assumed that men are political actors and states are masculinist constructs” (65). Therefore, masculinity is a social construct, and as such, it is influenced by gender biases, hierarchies, stereotypes, etc., which have a profound effect on the way theories and discourse are constructed.


International relations depends on the idea of sovereignty. In this state the sovereign power has absolute power over their territories and this foundation allows for interdependence and independence to occur. The concept of sovereignty is problematic because the...

Find Another Essay On Gender in International Relations

Gender Relations and Inequality in India

2320 words - 9 pages Gender relations and inequality is experienced through lack of educational matters and unfair treatment of women and children, thus in many cases forcing women to run households, while the men are away at work in various seasonal migration jobs at unviable wages. As defined in a classic article, income inequality is “the distribution of total income amongst the represented population” (Gehring13). In outlined studies; evidence can conclude

Idealism and Realism in International Relations

1539 words - 6 pages In regards to the recent events in Ukraine, international relations (IR) have become a popular topic among people again. However, not many truly understand what the term ‘international relations’ entails. Unlike what we usually see in TV dramas, it is more than just people sending representatives to different countries to visit or negotiation about debatable agreements. International relation, sometimes known as ‘world politics’, began after the

The small countries in the International Relations

680 words - 3 pages Untitled The small countries in the International Relations Northwith standing the quantity of small countries all over the world they are still less studied. In the theory of the International Relations the interest over the problems of small countries increases but slowly. There is no final answer to criteria of determination of the type of the small countries. A small country , first of all is weak in view of military and

The small countries in the International Relations

616 words - 2 pages The small countries in the International RelationsNorthwith standing the quantity of small countries all over the world they are still less studied. In the theory of the International Relations the interest over the problems of small countries increases but slowly.There is no final answer to criteria of determination of the type of the small countries. A small country , first of all is weak in view of military and political development. This

International Relations Theory: Changes in the Hierarchy of International Politics

1786 words - 7 pages "Should international relations theory be held accountable for explaining fundamental changes in the hierarchy of international politics and the emergence of new actors?" It seems absurd to answer that international relations theory should not be in the business of explaining fundamental changes in international politics. However, this response paper will argue on both edges of the question. First, it actually does make sense to attempt to hold

Concept of Security in the Context of International Relations

2287 words - 9 pages "(Ullman, 1983:133). Meanwhile, according to Simon Dalby, the security dimension in the study of International Relations has experienced a shift from the traditional perspective that is limited to war and peace. Towarda non-traditional perspective that emphasizes human security and contains more aspects. Security is no longer focused on interstate relations, but also on the security of society (Dalby, 2003:102-103). Peter Hough said that the

Sovereignty is of declining significance in international relations

1921 words - 8 pages Carl Schmitt once stated, “The protego ergo oblige” (n.d); meaning I protect therefore I oblige. This is the basis of a key aspect of International Relations: Sovereignty. Theoretically, it can be defined as the supreme power or authority. Sovereignty as a concept plays a critical role in maintaining international order however has been interpreted in several different ways; its context in theory and in reality. In order to appreciate

The Skeptic Theory of Morality in International Relations

1606 words - 7 pages theory of morality in international relations. Following that I will explore ethics in the Morality of States and Cosmopolitan schools of thought in comparison to Skepticism. Skepticism: Skepticism, often known as realism, is one of the oldest perspectives to observe ethics in international relations. The basic premise of international skepticism is that states are selfish actors and when necessary, a state should act in its self-interested

Impact of Great Depression on International Relations in the 1930s

1170 words - 5 pages Impact of Great Depression on International Relations in the 1930s In the early 1920s the Great Depression hit. The chaos caused by the First World War was the main reason for the Great Depression. The USA had lent large amounts of money to other countries to help with their damages from the war. The loans that the USA made helped the countries to recover trade. Many countries tried to protect their industries by

The Prominence of Sex in International Government Relations

2055 words - 9 pages in international government relations and the intertwining of nations, and the unique backdrop of a leader’s sexuality in the situate of public scandal in order shed light on the manner by which this progression from the private sexual fantasy to the public eye is one of control and manipulation in efforts to paint people and situations they inhabit until scandal breaks out and the public transforms from the controlled into the judge, jury, and

Why are gender relations important to include in the study of power in society?

2963 words - 12 pages Why are gender relations important to include in the study of power in society?The study of power is very important to almost all branches of international politics and relations; gauging where it lies, where it should lie and how it should be distributed. When answering a question on "power" it is important to define power. Stephen Lukes coined it as "an essential contested concept" (Lukes 1974: 137), on the other hand, Kenneth Boulding

Similar Essays

Gender Relations In Religion Essay

1455 words - 6 pages earns derision and causes inner turmoil. The impersonal narratives and “tragicomic” genre examine this bias within the setting. By juxtaposing the gendered depictions of religion in characters, events, and prose, Emilia Pardo Bazán and Theodor Fontane underscore the partiality of gender relations in the nineteenth century. The female protagonists of each novel, Marcelina (commonly known as Nucha) and Countess Christine, qualify as religious

Negotiations In International Relations Essay

2124 words - 8 pages Negotiations in International Relations Introduction In international law, diplomatic negotiations are the primary means of peaceful settlement of disputes between states, which consists of direct discussions. In this research paper we are presenting these negotiations to reach to a fully understanding of the concept as well as its importance and the way things work in international politics. Diplomacy is the practice of conducting negotiations

Human Nature In International Relations Essay

703 words - 3 pages Human nature is that quality that sets us apart from other living things; it is the definition of what we are. The concept of human nature in international relations is embedded in the theories of international relations. Every International relations theory has its specific assumptions about human nature. The basic premise of these theories has its roots in human nature because in understanding the world and how it works, human nature is first

Gender Equality In International Business Essay

818 words - 3 pages In past experience, through travels outside of the country for business relations it was discovered very early on that most cultures will respect fairness and tolerance, but each to a different degree. American women in managerial positions have had to struggle to find ways to be effective in cultures where their authority and credibility are not traditionally the norm. Perhaps it was the value of fairness that clashed with tolerance or respect