In this article, I will explore in details the gender bias of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs). First, I will give an in depth overview and background information about Structural Adjustment Programs. Secondly, the research will also examine and highlight the factors that influence the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programs. Moreover, the essay will briefly elaborate on the term gender and what constitute gender bias.
Furthermore, I will attempt to evaluate the impact on gender by the implementation of the conditionalities of the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) as stipulated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB).
Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) were neoliberal policies that were supported by the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) for implementation in developing countries. The policy consequences are still a controversial issue and the mere mention of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) can provoke heated debate. The effects of Structural Adjustment Programs are far and wide and the debates about its impacts still stand the test of time. While Structural Adjustment Program(SAPs) was regarded as a success story in some countries by analysts for mainly its regulatory role in public service reform (Jayarayah Cral, Barson William 1995) and that SAP was working ,but improper evaluation distorted its reality (P. Thandika Mkandawire, Charles Chukwuma Soludo 2003). It’s also widely criticized by other critics for its adverse effects on for instance agriculture;
That is substantial expansion of aggregate agricultural output and export is unrealistic in the short and long terms, even if all the components are in place at the start of the adjustment programs (Koester Ulrich, Schafer Hartwig, and Valdes Alberto (1990.p27).
Its other numerous criticisms included the exacerbation of poverty ,disruption of social services ,unemployment, low economic growth, gender bias among other things in many developing countries ;Agyemany Kwandwo Konadu,Panford 2006) expressed the view of (Geogre 1992)that in addition the program was thought to render adjustment countries less able to service their debt each year and precluded investing in economic recovery ( George 1992). Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) was also viewed as ‘gender blind’ as it wrecks havoc on women’s lives Owoh, K (1993). Therefore, in this article, I will attempt to investigate the impact of gender bias by Structural Adjustment Program (SAPs) as one of many of its controversial effects.
2. An overview of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP)
Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) are generally referred to as the neoliberal policies that were designed for struggling economies in many developing countries that had faced odious debts and stagnant economic growth. The Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) were initially developed by the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary...