This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Gene/Environment Interactions And Their Association With Cancer

1374 words - 5 pages

Cancer is perhaps one of the most irksome diseases whose causes are often elusive and unrecognizable. The etiological agents of cancer are difficult to estimate and it is not attributed to purely genetic or purely environmental factors, and therefore, cancer research has been largely focused on the interaction between genes and the environment (Mucci et al., 2001). A large number of studies have investigated the possible causes of various types of cancers, implicating diet, heredity and environment as its major determinants. Most diseases are a result of complex interactions between a person’s genetic make-up and the environmental agents he/she is exposed to (NIEHS, 2011). Therefore, the possibility of the involvement of gene-environment interactions in the occurrence of cancers is being investigated worldwide.
Gene-Environment Interactions
A disease occurs when there is an interaction between “genetic susceptibility factors” and “modifiable environmental factors”, and variations in the genetic make-up of an individual influence his/her susceptibility to environmental factors that are responsible for a disease (CDC, 2000). Therefore, owing to genetic variation, some individuals are more susceptible to a particular disease than others are, and these variations govern the extent of effect a particular environmental condition has on the risk of a disease in an individual.
Can Gene-Environment Interactions be Measured?
Gene-environment interaction can be defined as that which occurs when a “genetic and environmental exposure work together to cause a disease outcome in some or all cases” (Brennan, 2002). Since the genetic make-up of an individual determines the susceptibility to environmental carcinogens, researchers are toiling to find out the combinations of environmental factors and susceptible gene polymorphisms that make one individual more prone to cancer than others. This raises the need to measure gene-environment interactions. Although a direct measurement is not possible, several models such as the additive model and the multiplicative model have been explored (Brennan, 2002).
Studies on the Association of Gene-Environment Interactions with Cancer
A few genes are involved in the metabolism and excretion of potentially toxic compounds, and in the repair of mistakes that occur during DNA replication and other cellular activities. These genes are the body’s major defenses against cancer. These genes may contain polymorphisms, which are responsible for causing variation in the response and susceptibility to environmental agents that are possible carcinogens. Because of the effect of various environmental factors on these specific genes, researchers have been seeking whether there is any link between gene-environment interactions and cancer (Brennan, 2002). Environmental factors that have the ability to induce cancers include pollution, diet, ionizing UV light, exposure to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, tobacco use and type of...

Find Another Essay On Gene/Environment Interactions and Their Association with Cancer

Gene Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis, Cancer, and Sickle Cell Diseases

731 words - 3 pages , it is class of diseases characterized by out-of control cell growth. Currently there is around 100 different types of cancer. In current times some forms of cancer are already curable but some are only curable up to certain stages. Currently in the word there is around 13.5 million diagnosed with cancer. It will benefit the whole world if gene therapy is able to cure cancer. Many people lives will be saved and we will be done with this dreaded

To what extent are humanity's interactions with the natural environment reflected in Aldous Huxley's "Brave New World" and Ridley Scott's "Blade Runner"?

1783 words - 7 pages environment. Influenced by the political and social contexts of their times, both revolve around worlds that are removed from nature because of technology and consumerism. However, it is because of the little interaction with nature either of them show that places emphasis on the importance of it, as both explore the possibilities of what the world would be like without the natural environment. The texts are not only speculative, they hold a warning against becoming too involved with artificiality, and the dire consequences of forgetting the natural world with which humanity has been blessed.

Early Humans and their Environment

1116 words - 4 pages Early Humans and their Environment Humans have been present on this Earth for nearly 3.5 million years when “Homo erectus” first evolved with an upright posture enabling the use of hands (Ponting). “Homo erectus” evolved into “Homo sapiens” one hundred thousand years ago and both lineages lived in small, mobile groups. For nearly two million years, their way of life was based around hunting and gathering food until ten to twelve thousand

VHL Tumor Suppressor Gene and Their Protein Products

1693 words - 7 pages its beta-domain for ubiquination and regulation of HIF (7). In addition to the protein-protein interactions, another function of pVHL deals with its interaction with fibronectin in association with the endoplasmic reticulum (6). Normally, fibronectin is placed in the extracellular matrix where is can interact with cell-surface receptors, however, this interaction is interrupted with the loss of the VHL gene. Detection of VHL Loss and Diagnosis

Report on JavaScript and its association with Multimedia

1457 words - 6 pages had arrived with the release of Netscape Navigator 3, which corrected the security flaws, and the accompanying bugs, which riddled the structure of the language. After the release of Netscape 3, the ECMA (European Computer Manufactures Association) decided to standardise JavaScript. This gave JavaScript the fresh breath it needed and hauled it into the market as well as encouraging web designers to finally use the language to script their websites

Communities and their Interactions Within the novel: A Gathering Of Old Men by Ernest Gaines

956 words - 4 pages demonstrates the cultural relationships between the white and black community. The thing that I found the most appealing about this book was Gaines's ability to vividly depict the story setting. The story unfolds from many different characters prospectives. This is effective method of writing so that each character is able reveal deep feelings and thoughts with the reader. In this essay I will focus on the communities and their interactions with each

How Cancer Effects the Cells, the Body, and their Offspring

1020 words - 4 pages areas of the body besides where they originally started ( The gene for some cancers can be passed down to their offspring.These genes may or may not produce cancer. The gene has to be activated and turned on. The mechanism for turning on a cancerous gene is not well understood. The mechanism may vary from person to person ( More than 4,000 diseases come from altered genes inherited

Do Name Brand Clothing Affect Children and Teens Lifestyles and Interactions With One Another?

2743 words - 11 pages certain type of brand or article of clothing; however, they are put into a group based on the brand they are wearing and are then disliked by some of their peers, before the chance of getting to know that person. These stereotypes are harming teen’s social interactions with one another and will make it harder for them later in life to talk to others who are not always into the same things as them. Name brand clothing is creating stereotypes and

What Light Is Shed On Macbeth's Character Through His Interactions With The Witches, Banquo And Macduff?

760 words - 4 pages What light is shed on Macbeth's character through his interactions with the witches, Banquo and Macduff? Macbeth explores the deterioration and disintegration of a tragic hero who fails to make the right moral choices in life. We must look into the other characters that influence Macbeth into taking the path he chose to take. In particular the witches and Lady Macbeth played a major role in his downfall. We do see in the end though, Macbeth

Outline And Evaluate The Principal Weaknesses Associated With Competitive Analysis As Used By Managers Attempting To Deepen Their Understanding Of The Business Environment

1812 words - 8 pages managers construe their competitive environment is highly relevant to any understanding of competitor interaction." The problem with most competitive analysis is that they tend to focus on well-established companies while ignoring potential competition from other companies and thereby limiting the scope of the analysis. Competitors are not only companies with same goals, structure and/or resources. They can be smaller and 'invisible' but viable


6238 words - 25 pages THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPUTER LITERACY LEVEL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN ASSOCIATION WITH GENDER AND GRADESelin Altıntaş-Şükran AkyüzMiddle East Technical UniversityIn FulfillmentOf The Requirements For The FLE 311-Advanced Writind and Research Skills CourseJanuary 2014AbstractThis paper examines the extent of usage of Internet among Middle East Technical University undergraduates and how this influenced their

Similar Essays

Cancer Treatment With Gene Therapy Essay

1845 words - 7 pages Cancer Treatment With Gene Therapy Gene therapy has been progressing over the past half-century and has led to many discoveries pertaining to the treatment of cancer. Normal body cells can either become cancerous by losing or gaining a function. To treat cancer, scientists can either replace damaged genes (such as a damaged tumor suppressing gene) in the malignant cells or stop the cells from overexpressing genes (such as oncogenes, or genes

Bayer Ag's Interactions With The Environment

1054 words - 5 pages these sites include,, and We also manage over 200 Information Technology applications for Bayer AG’s companies. Global Environment Observations With Bayer AG being such a vast global organization, it both affects and is affected by the global environment. Bayer CropScience is a great example of this. Recently, BayerCropscience has been extremely involved in the global environment. The company has started

Cells, Cancer And Gene Control Essay

2188 words - 9 pages provide us with a robust understanding of cancer and gene control. First, let’s explore the properties of life and cells in the light of their chemical, molecular and compound based composition that are necessary for life. All life displays seven common characteristics: Order, Regulation, Growth and Development, Energy processing, Response to the environment, Reproduction, and Evolution. When combined, these seven characteristics are called the

Gene Therapy And Its Effect On Cancer

3602 words - 14 pages proved conclusively safe for those treated and their children. The other type of therapy less opposed is the somatic cell approach that only affects the cells of the individual being treated. Cancer has recently been the target for several different types of somatic cell therapy and along with them come a set of controversial aspects that question its role in society. Cancer is an ever- increasing disease that affects all ages, sex and race