A rapidly changing healthcare industry requires researchers to explore various possibilities in the attempt to develop effective treatment options. The human genome is a complex organism that is vulnerable to invading pathogens and environmental changes. Advancements in human health directly require treatment of the human body on a cellular level. Rigorous examination and experimentation of microorganisms revealed encouraging scientific discoveries. An efficient mechanism promising vast improvements to healthcare is the development of gene manipulation.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome by using biotechnologies. The process begins with the molecular cloning of genetic materials or by synthesizing the DNA. The finished product is a new DNA sequence that then can be inserted into a host organism. Complete manipulation allows for the access to the gene. Modifications may include the manipulation of DNA where the sequences may be added, deleted, and suppressed. Organisms that have been created by this process of genetic engineering are considered to be genetically modified organisms (Biology-Online, 2014).
Today, gene manipulation is impacting nursing and the healthcare field in many ways. The advancements contributed to gene manipulation will enable the human population to sustain itself by reducing and even curing once otherwise thought terminal illnesses. Current research is focused on looking at the entire genome to identify pathogenic causing traits to common diseases. This ongoing research is assessing not only the genome structure, but also the influence of other factors, such as environmental factors, on chronic diseases.
Genetic manipulation and its impact on health care can be clearly seen with the advancement of medications. The over use of traditional antibiotics have resulted in pathogenic bacterial strains that have become resistant to pharmacological therapy and more difficult to treat. Genetic modifications allow antibiotics to be altered and even combined to amplify their strength and increase their antimicrobial effectiveness. One-third of these bacteria are currently synthesized and used to manufacture commercial antibiotics including Erythromycin and Vancomycin. Other medications that have been developed include Migrastatin and Geldanamycin, the anticancer compounds. Manipulation and cloning allows these new antibiotic forms to be mass produced and replace the current supply of ineffective antibiotics (Alduina & Gallo, 2012).
As a solution to these problems, artificial chromosome-based vectors were designed. These vectors allow genetic information for secondary metabolite production to be transferred from the original organism to a host with well-defined genetics and physiology. Artificial chromosomes are useful tools that allow for exploitation and exploration of their genetic potential. Up to 90% of the chemical potential of these organisms remains unknown...