Gene Therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
Leukemia is one of kinds of the blood tumor and which can effect on blood and the bone marrow. This disease is featuring when the white blood cells are increasing unnaturally. There are no a certain age to this disease. The treatment of this disease is dependent on the age of patient and the type of leukemia.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or β- Cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (β -CLL) is the disease that causing tumor in lymphocytes. The CLL cells are trying to keep the β- cells are working. Also, they try to do not accept to be under the programed cell death (Wierda & Kipps, 2007). The CLL is distinguished through amassing of lymph tissue, marrow and monoclonal B cells in the blood. Until now it is hard to treatment this disease. Researchers have found that to security the CLL cells from apoptosis need for the existence both of bone marrow and lymph node (Castro et al., 2012).
Gene therapy is replace a mutation gene to replace curative genes. Using DNA is the main factor on gene therapy. The gene therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by stimulate the immune gene through using primary leukemia cell and virus vector (Wierda & Kipps, 2007).
Researches been have used three vectors of gene therapy for CLL. First Technique is adenoviral (Ad) vector. It is a 36-kb double stranded DNA virus. This virus can reduce the rate of disease and affect on various cell (Cantwell, Sharma, Friedmann & Kipps, 2014). Using adenoviral vectors because they have many advantage to treat the CLL. These viruses characterized by high feature which are not linked with serious infection. They have used Ad-ISF35 which is adenovirus vector. Both in vivo and in vitro can encode by Ad-ISF35. In addition, these vector encodes an animal and human CD154, also is known as CD40 (Cardenas et al., 2012). The reason for using CD40 or CD154 is there are responses in clinical trial. Also, by changing the phenotype of CD40 are activation of B cells (Castro et al., 2012).
The other technique that using of gene therapy for CLL is using vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) pseudotyped Lentiviral vectors that encoding CD38. Lentivirus is one member of retroviral family, and this virus can deliver the RNA into DNA. By using Lentiviral vectors, researches can be modified, erase, and add genes (Pearce et al., 2010). CD38 is glycoprotein that can found in many white blood cells. Also, CD38 is the molecule combine with the CLL, and it is symmetric to cDNA (Pearce et al., 2010).
The last technique is using retroviral vectors in both vivo and vitro by artificial T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CARs are engineered receptors that can transfer their coding by retroviral vectors. the mechanism of these receptors are taking off the T cells from patient to modified by these receptors during that be elimination on the cancer cells then returned to the patient.
Gene therapy for CLL by Ad- ISF35 vector....