What is aging? Everyone can give an answer to this question, which is a process when the body begins to change as time goes by. However, the proximal cause of aging remains one of the unsolved problems in biology. Researchers have found that genetics has a role in aging, which it determined the life span (Larsen, 2001). Aging can occur in many fundamental ways, which can be determined by a program driven by genes or by random, accidental events, or by diseases or stress (Aging Genes, 2008).
Firstly, DNA and genes are made of proteins. Proteins are fundamental to cells because cells need proteins in order to function. The human body produces different proteins for different cells. Each organ produces and uses specific cells that they can benefit from. Cells from a different organ cannot affect or benefit another organ. For instance, a cell from the ears cannot affect the eyes or benefit from it and they are programmed to help only a specific organ to function. There are many ways to control genes, which is called transcription factors (TFs) meaning that they manage the amount of proteins that is made for every cell. TF is precise for only a certain set of genes because they can produce adrenaline or even genes that lead to aging (Aging Genes, 2008).
The first aging theory is that our genes because damaged over time, which makes us age. Another theory is that some organisms are programmed in to their genes when to age, in other words, our genes have information on when to make us grow older. Some of the organisms can live in certain average of time, for examples, mice can only live for two years and a human is 75 years or older (Aging Genes, 2008). Researchers had testified worm Caenorhabditis elegans die in only two weeks, but single gene mutations or TFs can increase longevity in C. elegans (Larsen, 2001) and extend the short three-week life span revealed that longevity is under genetic control. Essential for making decisions that prepare the animal for time ahead, sensory perception can also dramatically affect life span (Antebi, 2007). Researchers used a method called RNA interference to reject ten of these TFs in the worm, but the outcome was that there were no effects. Although they saw the result with three of them, they looked at what happened in mutants that lived longer. Mainly when the scientists get rid of the TFs, the mutated worms no longer lived an extended life, and instead, it affects the worms to have a normal natural life. However, the aging is not occurring because of wear and tear of every day life (Aging Genes, 2008).
Another organism that was tested for the genetic studies of model organism that emphasize the advances in understanding the biological basis of aging and longevity is the Drosophila melanogaster, the “fruit fly”. Throughout the research of the genetic studies of D. melanogaster, researchers test the life span to tell whether the longevity increased. Since, the fruit fly D. melanogaster was the first organism...