This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Genetic Disorders Essay

1396 words - 6 pages

Genetic disorders are diseases caused when certain mutations occur in DNA. There are a wide range of genetic disorders that are each caused by different genes and each have very different symptoms. There are three kinds of genetic disorders: single-gene disorders, chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders. In this document we will cover the three types of genetic disorders, examples of each type, and possible treatment of particular disorders such as Huntington’s disease, Down syndrome, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Life on Earth relies on the mutation of DNA. Mutations allow organisms to evolve, making them healthier and more capable of surviving. While many mutations occur that help species to survive, there are also just as many mutations that do not help species survive. In some cases, organisms die because the mutation of their DNA makes it impossible for them to survive. For some species, mutations occur that do not help them to survive, but they still live. This could be the beginning of an inherited genetic disorder.
Genetic disorders are abnormalities of the human body, caused by mutations in DNA. These mutations are random unless caused by the environment. There are three categories of genetic disorders: single-gene disorders, chromosome abnormalities, and multifactorial disorders.
As said by Richard Twyman, “Single-gene disorders are caused by defects in one particular gene, and often have simple and predictable inheritance patterns (, 2003).” Single-gene disorders usually cause symptoms by altering or changing the amount of a protein made by the mutated gene. Offspring of a parent with the mutated gene have a fifty percent chance of inheriting the mutated gene.

Huntington’s disease is a single-gene disorder that causes the brain to lose their memory, speech, and fine motor skills. Huntington’s disease occurs later on in life, symptoms usually occurring between the ages of 40 and 50. In the United States, about 1 in every 30,000 people has Huntington’s disease (“Huntington’s Disease” Genetic Science Learning Center, 2006).
The gene for Huntington’s disease is found only on the X chromosome, making it a sex-linked trait. Since the gene is found on the X chromosome, it can only be given to offspring by the mother’s DNA. Sex-linked traits can only be expressed if there is not another X chromosome to counter the mutated gene with its normal gene. This puts males (have X and Y chromosomes) at a huge disadvantage because they do not have another X chromosome like females (have two X chromosomes) do. Males with mothers who are carriers of the mutated gene have a fifty percent chance of inheriting disease because there are two X chromosomes (one has the mutated gene) in which they can be given. This is why sex-linked traits, such as the gene for Huntington’s disease, most often affect males. Although females of mothers with the mutated gene are less likely to be affected by the mutated gene, they...

Find Another Essay On Genetic Disorders

Gene Therapy and Genetic Disorders Essay

1397 words - 6 pages Every cell in the human body is given instruction by our genes as to what job each cell should perform. Every tiny detail is dependent upon the instruction of our genes. If a gene or cell becomes damaged, changes, or is missing, there are major consequences to the body and the health of the individual. Genetic disorders are caused by damaged or missing genes and can be life threatening. They can lead to serious diseases in the individual

Genetic Disorders and Down Syndrome Essay

1177 words - 5 pages A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's DNA. Abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes” (Letsou). Most individuals are either related to or know someone who is effected by some type of disability. Many of these disabilities are caused by genetic disorders. Genetic disorders may alter physical appearance

Genetic Disorders and they become what they are

1424 words - 6 pages In order to understand about genetic disorders one must start from the beginning. Cells are the basis of the human body. In the cell a nucleus is located. The nucleus is what controls the cell and is where most genetic material is located. Each cell is made up of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes are composed of DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a chemical that carries genetic information. Located on the DNA strand are genes which are inherited from

Genetic Disorders: Beta Thalassemia

1273 words - 5 pages Orofacial characteristics of β –thalassemia major patients among the UAE population Introduction Beta thalassemia is a genetic disorder in which the gene for the production of beta globin chain is defective. The name thalassemia is derived from a combination of two Greek words: thalassa meaning the sea, i.e. the Mediterranean, and anaemia (“weak blood”). Therefore it is also known as Mediterranean anemia. Another name for beta

List of Genetic Disorders

618 words - 2 pages blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become crescent shaped. As a result, they function abnormally and cause small blood clots. These clots give rise to recurrent painful episodes called "sickle cell pain crises."Cri du Chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder due to a missing portion of chromosome 5. Its name, meaning cry of the cat in French, is from the distinctive mewing sound made by infants with the disorder. As babies, patients tend to be

Gene-therapy: How will it Change the Future of Genetic Disorders

2179 words - 9 pages completion of the human genome was on all the major news wires, televisions and newspapers. What does it mean though? How will this help mankind? One area to which this knowledge can be applied is in the area of gene-therapy. Gene-therapy is now being tested to treat and cure some common genetic disorders. Like all new research, gene-therapy is the center of much controversy. A discussion of genetic disorders and current prevention methods is

Genetic Disorders: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

1098 words - 4 pages Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is an inherited genetic disorder that consists of extreme muscle weakness, which rapidly worsens, and over time leads to death. Young newlyweds, Molly and Brent are seeking information on the health of their possible children. Molly’s younger brother, Hunter, has Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, he suffers and is confined to a wheelchair due to this genetic disorder. Molly and Brent want research done on behalf of their

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2235 words - 9 pages spread of this phenomenon has an impact on the genetic combination of the people in these countries because we are combining some of the recessive genes in many people, which may express itself in some types of disorders and genetic diseases that appear in higher percentages that we do not find in marriages to non-relatives [1]. Genetic diseases are a wide range of diseases which occurs as a result of a mutation or a defect in one or more of the

Genetic Engineering

1176 words - 5 pages The selective Engineering of Genetics is invaluable to the health and happiness of humans. The importance of this issue has played second fiddle to the arguments, for and against genetic engineering. This essay will discuss the impact of genetic engineering on everyday life, for example genetic disorders, disease and how its impact on life in the world today. Although the opinions differ greatly, the benefits are substantial.Firstly, an

Genetic Counseling

628 words - 3 pages that commonly births children with genetic disorders. (Adams,1999) Genetic counseling should not stray parents away from having children, however it is a great way to get ready for a child with special needs before the child is even born.Though many parents may not be willing to take on a child with special needs, they should be informed of the many support systems that are around. Parents do have the option of not having children or aborting a

The Potential of Human Genetic Engineering

1703 words - 7 pages and the one that could lead to designer babies. Controversies aside, these two methods hold great potential in terms of curing and preventing the genetic diseases which affect millions of people worldwide. The method which is most widely used today is somatic genetic engineering also known as gene therapy. As described previously, somatic genetic engineering is used to treat adults and children with genetic disorders and does not affect sex cells

Similar Essays

Genetic Disorders Essay

841 words - 3 pages Introduction Genetic Disorders are medical conditions that are caused by an error in a person's genes. Some of them appear as a birth defect, while others do not become distinct until later in life. Genetic disorders can range from those that cause death to those that produce only mild problems, such as color blindness or an extra pinky. Scientists have distinguished more than 9,000 genetic disorders. Some are exceptionally rare while others are

Genetic Disorders Essay

1056 words - 5 pages Genetic Disorders Most individuals are either related to or know someone who is effected by some type of disability. Many of these disabilities are caused by genetic disorders. Genetic disorders may alter physical appearance and cause mild to severe mental retardation. Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Turners syndrome and many other syndromes result from a mutation of a chromosome, an extra chromosome, or too few chromosomes. Discovered in

Various Genetic Disorders Essay

2839 words - 11 pages Various Genetic Disorders Alterations in human chromosomes or the deletion of an important gene product are often due to a mutation, which can spring an abundant strand of genetic mutations and improper coding. Mutations can spring from deletion, duplication or inversion of a chromosome. This improper deletion is the factor that leads to complications

Genetic Disorders In Twins Essay

2611 words - 11 pages Twin studies have been used to distinguish between genetic and environmental factors for many disorders in the general population including ectodermal dysplasia, Ellis-van Creveld, and anencephaly. This review focuses on genetic disorders affecting monozygotic, dizygotic, and conjoined twins to gain a better understanding of them. Many studies focus on twins because they have a nearly identical genome, which eliminates environmental factors. In