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Genetic Testing On Animals Essay

2111 words - 8 pages

When you bite into an apple, the taste is what stands out the most. The juices in your mouth, and rough but delicious inside, the smooth skin; it really is something that makes ones taste buds go wild. But what if the apple could taste better, be bigger, and all around be better for you? Well this is where genetically modified organisms (GMO's) come into play.Genetically modified organisms are organisms whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. There is an altering to improve the being of animals, plants, and even for genetic research. It is easy to show this using the example of the fruit. Let's say there are two apple trees. One of the apple tress has been genetically modified, while the other has not been disturbed at all. With the apple tree that has not been disturbed, one would expect the typical apple. With the genetically modified apple tree, the apples would be better than the undisturbed trees apples. They would be bigger, have more taste, and therefore sell better to the public.There are a few ways to genetically modify plants. First, one way is to use a "gene gun." This gun is used to shoot DNA into plant cells. It is done in a unique way, where there are actual pellets that are shot into the gene cell. The trick was to find a way to just shoot it into the cell, and make sure it didn't go completely through the cell. John Sanford invented this gun in the 1980s and in 1987 it was nationally accepted. This gun was vital in shooting corn with new genes by 1990. The way to genetically modify plants before the gene gun was introduced was by taking advantage of agrobacterium. Angrobacterium is a bacterium that takes advantage of damaged plants. The bacterium infects the damages area and forms a gall on the stem of the plant. This gall is used to inject DNA from the bacterium into the plant. The unique thing is that the once the DNA is entered into the cell, it doesn't shoot more out. The lone DNA cell stays in the stem and alters the next generation of the plant. So when scientists figured this out, they injected certain DNA into the gall. By doing this, they would be able to genetically modify the plant by using the gall to send the distinct DNA into the plant. (Watson, 137-140)James Watson was a firm believer in the use of genetically modified organisms. He devoted a whole chapter in his book about it. He states that, "science's highest moral obligation is to apply what is known for the greatest benefit of humankind." (Watson, 163) This is a direct relation to science and its experiments. When something new is discovered in the scientific world, and if it can promote goodness to all who experience it, then it should be provided to the public. It is true that scientists are constantly testing new drugs every day, and are always trying to find a cure for diseases. Now, if a scientist discovers or makes a cure for cancer, and it is tested and approved, then is it not in their moral obligation to promote and provide this drug for...

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