Genetically modified organism (GMO) is a technique that uses genetic engineering (GE), such as recombinant DNA technology and reproductive cloning. This modifies yeast, insects, fish, mammals, plants, crops, and microorganisms. Biotechnology companies play a large role in the use of GMOs. The leading superpowers are USA (The Superpower), European Union (2nd World), Japan (The Sun), China (The Dragon), India (The Elephant) and South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore (The Small Dragons). GMO is the altercation of genetic material (DNA). It is when the donor nucleus is transferred into the cytoplasm of the host egg. GMO is also referred to as transgenic. Food that is modified using this technique is called genetically modified (GM) foods. This means the use of technology alters the genetic material of an organism, which would not happen from natural recombination or fertilization. GMOs products have emerged in our society in agriculture, medicine, and research since its development in the 1950s.
The evolution of GMOs started in the 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick first discovered the structure of DNA in a three-dimensional double helix. Between the 1960s DNA techniques were developed that was able to synthesize and replicate genes (Kuzma, Najmaie, & Larson, 2009). In 1972, Herbt Boyer and Stanley Cohen developed genetic information with replication in species and the first recombinant DNA organism. Two years later, Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang, and Herbert Boyer created the created the first GMOs. Then, Rudolf Jaenisch created the first genetically modified animal through the use of foreign DNA into a mouse embryo (GMO Regulation Timeline, n.d). This led to the U.S government to develop regulation on experimenting recombinant DNA.
In 1976, the U.S government with the National Institute of Health (NIH) introduced the first committee, called the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC). Their first proposed product released in field trials was the ice minus bacterium. By 1986, the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), with the Biotechnology safety Committee (BSCC) developed a three-agency model called the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology (CFRB). That same year, United States conducted their first field tests. The result of evolution of GMOs resulted in the U.S implementation of policies and adaption (Kuzma, Najmaie, & Larson, 2009).
From the 1990s to early 2000, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), implemented guidelines, rules, and policies on safety, research, and how it would be brought into the market. They used the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, the Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), and the Federal Plant Pest Act (FPPA) to regulate biotechnology products. The FDA approved Humilin as the first approved product in the market in 1982 by Genetech. It was not until 1994,...